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Engineering    2016, Vol. 2 Issue (4) : 389-397     https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2016.04.002
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三峡工程运行以来的几个问题思考
郑守仁
Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Wuhan 430010, China
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最新录用日期:    在线预览日期:    发布日期: 2016-12-28
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Shouren Zheng
引用本文:   
Shouren Zheng. Reflections on the Three Gorges Project since Its Operation[J]. Engineering, 2016, 2(4): 389-397.
网址:  
http://engineering.org.cn/EN/10.1016/J.ENG.2016.04.002     OR     http://engineering.org.cn/EN/Y2016/V2/I4/389
Fig.1  A plan map for the comprehensive utilization of the Yangtze River Basin.
Location Annual average runoff (×?109?m3) Annual average sediment load (×?106?t)
Preliminary design value (1877-1990) Before impoundment
(1991-2002)
After impoundment
(2003-2015)
Preliminary design value (1877-1990) Before impoundment
(1991-2002)
After impoundment
(2003-2015)
Observed value Compared to preliminary
design value
Observed value Compared to preliminary design value Observed value Compared to preliminary design value Observed value Compared to preliminary design value
TGP damsite 451.0 428.7 -4.94% 400.3 -11.24% 521 391 -25.0% 40.4 -92.2%
Site flowing into the Three Gorges Reservoir 401.5 387.1 -3.59% 369.0 -8.09% 491 357 -27.3% 164.5 -66.5%
Tab.1  Change in runoff and sediment load at the Three Gorges Project (TGP) damsite and flowing into the Three Gorges Reservoir.
Three Gorges Reservoir Flood control operation mode Conditions required to use TGP’s flood control storage
capacity
Water level upstream of the damsite (m) Flood control storage capacity (×?109?m3)
175-171 3.92 Operation for preventing upstream extraordinary flood: Discharge at Zhicheng Hydrometrical Station in Jingjiang River reach is controlled not in excess of 80?000?m3··s-1; in combination with flood detention and storage measures, water level at Shashi Hydrometrical Station is controlled to be not higher than El. 45?m If a flood with a return period of over 100 or 1000 years (maximum peak discharge of 98?800?m3·s-1) or a flood similar to the 1870 extraordinary flood (maximum peak discharge at Yichang Hydrometrical Station of 105?000?m3·s-1) occurs upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir
171-155 12.58 Flood control compensation operation for Jingjiang River reach: Water level at Shashi Hydrometrical Station is not higher than El. 44.5?m after the controlled flow discharged from reservoir is superposed with the inflow from between the damsite and the city of Shashi If a 100 year frequency or below 100 year frequency flood (maximum peak discharge of 83?700?m3·s-1) occurs upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir
155-145 5.65 Flood control compensation operation for the Chenglingji reach is considered at the same time: Compensation regulation is conducted in terms of El. 34.4?m at Chenglingji Hydrometrical Station If a flood from upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir is not great, it is not yet necessary to impound a large volume of water for meeting the flood control need for the Jingjiang River reach, and the water level at Chenglingji Hydrometrical Station will exceed the design level for dykes built along the main Yangtze River, then the Three Gorges Reservoir is required to retain and impound flood water
Tab.2  Flood control operation mode for the TGP’s optimized operation.
Year Annual runoff (×?109?m3) Starting impoundment date and starting impoundment water level Highest impoundment water level and date
Starting impoundment date Starting impoundment
water level (m)
Impoundment water level on
September 30 (m)
Highest impoundment water level (m) Date
2008 429.0 September 28 145.3 149.1 172.80 November 4
2009 388.1 September 15 145.9 157.1 171.43 November 24
2010 406.7 September 10 160.2 162.6 175.00 November 26
2011 339.5 September 10 152.2 166.1 175.00 November 30
2012 448.1 September 10 158.9 169.0 175.00 November 30
2013 367.8 September 10 156.7 166.9 175.00 November 11
2014 438.0 September 15 164.6 168.5 175.00 October 31
2015 377.7 September 10 156.0 166.4 175.00 October 28
Tab.3  A summary of impoundment data from every year during the TGP’s trial impoundment and operation at El. 175?m.
Fig.2  The Yangtze trunkstream and main tributaries upstream of the Three Gorges Dam.
Fig.3  The Yangtze trunkstream and main tributaries downstream of the Three Gorges Dam.
Year Maximum peak (m3·s-1) Occurrence date Maximum discharged flow (m3·s-1) Maximum reduction peak (m3·s-1) Times of flood storage Total flood storage volume (×?109?m3) Highest regulating flood level from June 10 to before impoundment (m)
2009 55?000 August 6 39?600 16?300 2 5.650 152.89
2010 70?000 July 20 40?900 30?000 7 26.430 161.02
2011 46?500 September 21 29?100 25?500 5 18.760 153.84
2012 71?200 July 24 45?800 28?200 4 22.840 163.11
2013 49?000 July 21 35?300 14?000 5 11.837 156.04
2014 55?000 September 20 45?000 22?900 10 17.512 164.63
2015 39?000 July 1 31?000 8?000 3 7.542 156.01
Tab.4  A summary of flood control operation data for the TGP’s trial impoundment and operation at El. 175?m.
Impoundment period Period Days of making-up water Total volume of making-up water (×?109?m3) Average rising navigable depth (m) Power generation by saving water
Year Increasing rate of hydro energy utilization (%) Power generation by saving water (×?109?kW·h)
Power generation period with water retained by cofferdam 2003-2004 11 0.879 0.74 2003 0.08
2004-2005 Since inflow is high during low-water season, no making-up water operation was conducted 2004 4.60 1.72
2005-2006 Since inflow is high during low-water season, no making-up water operation was conducted 2005 4.00 1.87
Initial operation period 2006-2007 80 3.580 0.38 2006 4.30 2.03
2007-2008 63 2.250 0.33 2007 4.50 2.68
Trial impoundment and operation period 2008-2009 190 21.600 1.03 2008 4.96 3.78
2009-2010 181 20.020 1.00 2009 5.23 3.96
2010-2011 194 24.331 1.13 2010 5.09 4.08
2011-2012 181 26.143 1.31 2011 5.17 3.79
2012-2013 178 25.410 1.29 2012 6.97 6.53
2013-2014 182 25.280 1.26 2013 5.45 4.43
2014-2015 82 6.100 1.26 2014 5.47 5.11
2015-2016 170 21.760 1.26 2015 6.00 5.02
Total 1501 177.474 45.08
Tab.5  A summary of water resources allocation and utilization data during the TGP’s operation.
1 Project Team for TGP’s Staged Assessment of Chinese Academy of Engineering. TGP’s staged assessment report. Beijing: China Water & Power Press; 2010. Chinese.
2 Project Team for TGP Assessment during Trial Impoundment Period of Chinese Academy of Engineering. Assessment report on TGP assessment during trial impoundment period. Beijing: China Water & Power Press; 2014. Chinese.
3 China Three Gorges Corporation. Report on construction quality of TGP and project operation in 2014. 2015. Chinese.
4 Zheng S. Discussion on TGP’s flood resources utilization and exerting integrated benefit. Yangtze River 2013;44(15):1–6. Chinese.
5 China Three Gorges Corporation. Report on construction quality of TGP and project operation in 2015. 2016. Chinese.
6 Zheng S. Discussion on hydropower resources development and environmental & ecological protection in China. Eng Sci 2006;8(6):1–6. Chinese.
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