Please wait a minute...
投稿  |   English  | 
   首页  |  最新收录  |  当期目录  |  过刊浏览  |  作者中心  |  关于期刊   开放获取  
投稿  |   English  | 
Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (5) : 716-725
Research |
 Atta K. Agyekum1,C. Martin Nyachoti2()
1. Prairie Swine Center Inc., Saskatoon, SK S7H 5N9, Canada
2. Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
全文: PDF(534 KB)   HTML
导出: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     支持信息
摘要 目前,大量的低成本、纤维类的副产物被添加到猪的日粮中以减少猪的养殖成本。然而,由于猪不能有效降解膳食纤维,因此富含纤维的日粮营养价值偏低。此外,高纤维日粮会降低营养物质的利用率和猪的生长性能。最近的研究结果不一致,甚至互相矛盾,而且纤维来源、纤维类型和纤维水平也会影响高纤维日粮的负效应。另外,测定膳食纤维及其纤维组成的分析方法会经常干扰纤维对猪生长和生理反应的影响。虽然已经有一些改善纤维对猪的消极影响、提高日粮的营养价值的方法被逐渐应用,如外源纤维降解酶广泛应用于提高营养物质利用率和猪的生长性能。但是,与研究结果并不一致,还需要阐明外源纤维降解酶在猪的代谢和生理反应中的作用方式。另外,膳食纤维日益成为促进猪的肠道健康和改善妊娠母猪福利的方法。本文对膳食纤维及其对猪的营养、肠道生理和母猪福利的影响进行了讨论。同时,本文建议要对膳食纤维和外源酶如何提高猪对高纤维原料的利用率方面进行深入的研究。
关键词 肠道生理高纤维日粮营养物质利用母猪福利    

At present, substantial amounts of low-cost, fibrous co-products are incorporated into pig diets to reduce the cost of raising swine. However, diets that are rich in fiber are of low nutritive value because pigs cannot degrade dietary fiber. In addition, high-fiber diets have been associated with reduced nutrient utilization and pig performance. However, recent reports are often contradictory and the negative effects of high-fiber diets are influenced by the fiber source, type, and inclusion level. In addition, the effects of dietary fiber on pig growth and physiological responses are often confounded by the many analytical methods that are used to measure dietary fiber and its components. Several strategies have been employed to ameliorate the negative effects associated with the ingestion of high-fiber diets in pigs and to improve the nutritive value of such diets. Exogenous fiber-degrading enzymes are widely used to improve nutrient utilization and pig performance. However, the results of research reports have not been consistent and there is a need to elucidate the mode of action of exogenous enzymes on the metabolic and physiological responses in pigs that are fed high-fiber diets. On the other hand, dietary fiber is increasingly used as a means of promoting pig gut health and gestating sow welfare. In this review, dietary fiber and its effects on pig nutrition, gut physiology, and sow welfare are discussed. In addition, areas that need further research are suggested to gain more insight into dietary fiber and into the use of exogenous enzymes to improve the utilization of high-fiber diets by pigs.

Keywords Gut physiology      High-fiber diets      Nutrient utilization      Pigs      Sow welfare     
最新录用日期:    在线预览日期:    发布日期: 2017-11-08
Atta K. Agyekum
C. Martin Nyachoti
Atta K. Agyekum,C. Martin Nyachoti. Nutritional and Metabolic Consequences of Feeding High-Fiber Diets to Swine: A Review[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 716-725.
网址:     OR
Animal type Challenge model Basal diet Type of NSPa Response Reference
Performance Intestinal health
Weanling pigs E. coli Rice Soluble ↓Daily gain ↑Infection, PWD incidence, proliferation, pH [85]
Weanling pigs E. coli Rice Soluble No effect ↑Infection, PWD incidence, proliferation; ↕pH [84]
Growing pigs Lawsonia intracellularis Corn-SBM Insoluble No effect ↕Lesion length, diarrhea prevalence, proliferation [94,95]
Growing pigs Swine dysentery Triticale, barley Soluble No effect ↓Infection, PWD incidence; ↕gut pH, SCFA [88]
Weanling pigs Non Rice, animal protein Insoluble No effect ↓PWD incidence; firmer stool [91]
Weanling pigs E. coli Porridge oats, wheat, animal protein Soluble No effect ↓Infection, PWD incidence, pH; ↑Lactobacillus: coliform [93]
Weanling pigs Non Corn, barley, soy protein concentrate Insoluble No effect ↕PWD incidence, lactobacilli; ↑SCFA; ↓E. coli, coliforms [89]
Weanling pigs E. coli Corn, wheat, barley, SBM Insoluble No effect ↕SCFA; ↓PWD incidence, E. coli; ↑microbial diversity [96]
Growing pigs Non Wheat, SBM Soluble No effect ↕Immune response, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, VFA; ↓Enterobacteriaceae [97]
Tab.1  Results of studies evaluating the effects of the type of non-starch polysaccharides on performance and gut health of pigs.
Diet composition NSP enzyme Pig Nutrient digestibility Performance Reference
Wheat, SBM, wheat screening, millrun Cellulase, galactanase, mannanase, and pectinase Nursery Improved DM, starch, energy, NSP, CP, and phytate digestibility Improved growth rate and feed efficiency [107]
Corn, SBM, DDGS (corn or sorghum) Xylanase, α-amylase, β-glucanase, and protease Nursery DM digestibility improved, but not CP and energy Improved feed efficiency, but not growth rate [108]
Corn, SBM, DDGS (corn or sorghum) Xylanase, α-amylase, β-glucanase, and protease Grower-finisher CP digestibility improved, but not DM and energy No significant improvement [108]
Corn, barley, SBM, wheat DDGS Xylanase, β-glucanase, and cellulase Grower-finisher Improved DM, CP, ether extract, and energy digestibility Improved growth rate and feed efficiency [109]
Corn, SBM, corn DDGS Xylanase, β-glucanase, and mannanase Nursery Not determined No significant improvement [110]
Corn, SBM, corn DDGS Xylanase, β-glucanase, protease, and mannanase Grower-finisher Not determined No significant improvement in all four studies [111]
Wheat, barley, corn, SBM, CM, corn DDSG, wheat middlings, rye Xylanase and β-glucanase Grower-finisher Improved DM, CP, and energy digestibility Improved gilt growth performance, but not barrows [112]
Corn-SBM, wheat middling, fish meal Xylanase, α-amylase, and protease Nursery Improved DM, CP, and energy digestibility Improved growth rate and feed efficiency [113]
Tab.2  Effects of supplementing fiber-rich diets with carbohydrase complex on nutrient digestibility and performance in pigs.
1 Woyengo TA, Beltranena E, Zijlstra RT. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Controlling feed cost by including alternative ingredients into pig diets: A review. J Anim Sci 2014;92(4):1293–305
2 Bedford MR, Schulze H. Exogenous enzymes for pigs and poultry. Nutr Res Rev 1998;11(1):91–114
3 Wenk C. The role of dietary fibre in the digestive physiology of the pig. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2001;90(1–2):21–33
4 Owusu-Asiedu A, Patience JF, Laarveld B, Van Kessel AG, Simmins PH, Zijlstra RT. Effects of guar gum and cellulose on digesta passage rate, ileal microbial populations, energy and protein digestibility, and performance of grower pigs. J Anim Sci 2006;84(4):843–52
5 Agyekum AK, Woyengo TA, Slominski BA, Yin YL, Nyachoti CM. Effects of formulating growing pig diet with increasing levels of wheat-corn distillers dried grains with solubles on digestible nutrient basis on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2014;98(4):651–8
6 Agyekum AK, Sands JS, Regassa A, Kiarie E, Weihrauch D, Kim WK, et al.Effect of supplementing a fibrous diet with a xylanase and β-glucanase blend on growth performance, intestinal glucose uptake, and transport-associated gene expression in growing pigs. J Anim Sci 2015;93(7):3483–93
7 Montagne L, Pluske JR, Hampson DJ. A review of interactions between dietary fibre and the intestinal mucosa, and their consequences on digestive health in young non-ruminant animals. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2003;108(1–4):95–117
8 Bach Knudsen KE, Hedemann MS, Lærke HN. The role of carbohydrates in intestinal health of pigs. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2012;173(1–2):41–53
9 De Leeuw JA, Bolhuis JE, Bosch G, Gerrits WJ. Effects of dietary fibre on behaviour and satiety in pigs. Proc Nutr Soc 2008;67(4):334–42
10 Bindelle J, Leterme P, Buldgen A. Nutritional and environmental consequences of dietary fibre in pig nutrition: A review. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 2008;12(1):69–80.
11 Trowell H, Southgate DA, Wolever TM, Leeds AR, Gassull MA, Jenkins DJ. Letter: Dietary fibre redefined. Lancet 1976;307(7966):967
12 Bach Knudsen KE. The nutritional significance of “dietary fibre” analysis. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2001;90(1–2):3–20
13 Codex Alimentarius Commission. Report on the 30th session of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (ALINORM 09/32/26). Appendix II. Guidelines for the use of nutrition claims: Table of conditions for nutrient contents (Part B) dietary fibre. Rome: Codex Alimentarius Commission; 2008 Nov.
14 Metzler B, Mosenthin R. A review of interactions between dietary fiber and the gastrointestinal microbiota and their consequences on intestinal phosphorus metabolism in growing pigs. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2008;21(4):603–15
15 Noblet J, Le Goff G. Effect of dietary fibre on the energy value of feeds for pigs. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2001;90(1–2):35–52
16 Bach Knudsen KE. Triennial Growth Symposium: Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development in pigs. J Anim Sci 2011;89(7):1965–80
17 Souffrant WB. Effect of dietary fibre on ileal digestibility and endogenous nitrogen losses in the pig. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2001;90(1–2):93–102
18 Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74(10):3583–97
19 Mertens DR. Challenges in measuring insoluble dietary fiber. J Anim Sci 2003;81(12):3233–49
20 Latimer GW Jr, Horwitz W, editors. Official methods of analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL. 18th ed. Arlington: AOAC INTERNATIONAL; 2007.
21 Asp NG, Tovar J, Bairoliya S. Determination of resistant starch in vitro with three different methods, and in vivo with a rat model. Eur J Clin Nutr 1992;46 Suppl 2:S117–9.
22 Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Hudson GJ, Cummings JH. Measurement of resistant starch in vitro and in vivo. Br J Nutr 1996;75(5):749–55
23 Zijlstra RT, Jha R, Woodward AD, Fouhse J, van Kempen TA. Starch and fiber properties affect their kinetics of digestion and thereby digestive physiology in pigs. J Anim Sci 2012;90 Suppl 4:49–58
24 Avelar E, Jha R, Beltranena E, Cervantes M, Morales A, Zijlstra RT. The effect of feeding wheat distillers dried grain with solubles on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2010;160(1–2):73–7
25 Anguita M, Gasa J, Nofrarias M, Martín-Orúe SM, Pérez JF. Effect of coarse ground corn, sugar beet pulp and wheat bran on the voluntary intake and physicochemical characteristics of digesta of growing pigs. Livest Sci 2007;107(2–3):182–91
26 Laitat M, Antoine N, Cabaraux JF, Cassart D, Mainil J, Moula N, et al.Influence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 2015;19(1):20–31.
27 Millet S, Meyns T, Aluwé M, De Brabander D, Ducatelle R. Effect of grinding intensity and crude fibre content of the feed on growth performance and gastric mucosa integrity of growing-finishing pigs. Livest Sci 2010;134(1–3):152–4
28 Kerr BJ, Gabler NK, Shurson GC. Formulating diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on a net energy basis: Effects on pig performance and on energy and nutrient digestibility. Prof Anim Sci 2015;31(6):497–503
29 Wu F, Johnston LJ, Urriola PE, Hilbrands AM, Shurson GC. Evaluation of NE predictions and the impact of feeding maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with variable NE content on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2016;215:105–16
30 Kyriazakis I, Emmans GC. The voluntary feed intake of pigs given feeds based on wheat bran, dried citrus pulp and grass meal, in relation to measurements of feed bulk. Br J Nutr 1995;73(2):191–207
31 Ndou SP, Gous RM, Chimonyo M. Prediction of scaled feed intake in weaner pigs using physico-chemical properties of fibrous feeds. Br J Nutr 2013;110(4):774–80
32 Stein HH, Shurson GC. Board-invited review: The use and application of distillers dried grains with solubles in swine diets. J Anim Sci 2009;87(4):1292–303
33 Agyekum AK, Slominski BA, Nyachoti CM. Organ weight, intestinal morphology, and fasting whole-body oxygen consumption in growing pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles alone or in combination with a multienzyme supplement. J Anim Sci 2012;90(9):3032–40
34 Gutierrez NA, Kerr BJ, Patience JF. Effect of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn-ethanol distillation origin on energy, fiber, and amino acid digestibility, hindgut degradability of fiber, and growth performance of pigs. J Anim Sci 2013;91(11):5314–25
35 Henry Y. Dietary factors involved in feed intake regulation in growing pigs: A review. Livest Prod Sci 1985;12(4):339–54
36 Bach Knudsen KE, Hansen I. Gastrointestinal implications in pigs of wheat and oat fractions. 1. Digestibility and bulking properties of polysaccharides and other major constituents. Br J Nutr 1991;65(2):217–32
37 Wilfart A, Montagne L, Simmins H, Noblet J, van Milgen J. Digesta transit in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs as affected by insoluble fibre supplied by wheat bran. Br J Nutr 2007;98(1):54–62
38 Le Gall M, Warpechowski M, Jaguelin-Peyraud Y, Noblet J. Influence of dietary fibre level and pelleting on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in growing pigs and adult sows. Animal 2009;3(3):352–9
39 Urriola PE, Stein HH. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs. J Anim Sci 2010;88(4):1454–62
40 Schulze H, van Leeuwen P, Verstegen MW, Huisman J, Souffrant WB, Ahrens F. Effect of level of dietary neutral detergent fiber on ileal apparent digestibility and ileal nitrogen losses in pigs. J Anim Sci 1994;72(9):2362–8.
41 Montagne L, Piel C, Lallès JP. Effect of diet on mucin kinetics and composition: Nutrition and health implications. Nutr Rev 2004;62(3):105–14
42 Eastwood MA, Morris ER. Physical properties of dietary fiber that influence physiological function: A model for polymers along the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(2):436–42.
43 Khokhar S. Dietary fibers: Their effects on intestinal digestive enzyme activities. J Nutr Biochem 1994;5(4):176–80
44 Knudsen KE, Jensen BB, Hansen I. Digestion of polysaccharides and other major components in the small and large intestine of pigs fed on diets consisting of oat fractions rich in β-D-glucan. Br J Nutr 1993;70(2):537–56
45 Högberg A, Lindberg JE. Influence of cereal non-starch polysaccharides on digestion site and gut environment in growing pigs. Livest Prod Sci 2004;87(2–3):121–30
46 Gao L, Chen L, Huang Q, Meng L, Zhong R, Liu C, et al.Effect of dietary fiber type on intestinal nutrient digestibility and hindgut fermentation of diets fed to finishing pigs. Livest Sci 2015;174:53–8
47 Agyekum AK, Regassa A, Kiarie E, Nyachoti CM. Nutrient digestibility, digesta volatile fatty acids, and intestinal bacterial profile in growing pigs fed a distillers dried grains with solubles containing diet supplemented with a multi-enzyme cocktail. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2016;212:70–80
48 Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Wolever TMS, Collier GR, Rao AV, Thompson LU. Starchy foods and fiber: Reduced rate of digestion and improved carbohydrate metabolism. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1987;22(Suppl 129):132–41
49 Serena A, Jørgensen H, Bach Knudsen KE. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber. J Anim Sci 2009;87(1):136–47
50 Nunes CS, Malmlöf K. Effects of guar gum and cellulose on glucose absorption, hormonal release and hepatic metabolism in the pig. Br J Nutr 1992;68(3):693–700
51 Nyachoti CM, de Lange CFM, McBride BW, Schulze H. Significance of endogenous gut nitrogen losses in the nutrition of growing pigs: A review. Can J Anim Sci 1997;77(1):149–63
52 Langlois A, Corring T, Février C. Effects of wheat bran on exocrine pancreas secretion in the pig. Reprod Nutr Dev 1987;27(5):929–39
53 Low AG. Secretory response of the pig gut to non-starch polysaccharides. Anim Feed Sci Tech 1989;23(1–3):55–65
54 Shi XS, Noblet J. Contribution of the hindgut to digestion of diets in growing pigs and adult sows: Effect of diet composition. Livest Prod Sci 1993;34(3–4):237–52
55 Schneeman BO, Gallaher D. Effects of dietary fiber on digestive enzyme activity and bile acids in the small intestine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1985;180(3):409–14
56 Story JA. Dietary fiber and lipid metabolism. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1985;180(3):447–52
57 Dégen L, Halas V, Babinszky L. Effect of dietary fibre on protein and fat digestibility and its consequences on diet formulation for growing and fattening pigs: A review. Acta Agr Scand A—An 2007; 57(1):1–9
58 Kil DY, Sauber TE, Jones DB, Stein HH. Effect of the form of dietary fat and the concentration of dietary neutral detergent fiber on ileal and total tract endogenous losses and apparent and true digestibility of fat by growing pigs. J Anim Sci 2010;88(9):2959–67
59 Jin L, Reynolds LP, Redmer DA, Caton JS, Crenshaw JD. Effects of dietary fiber on intestinal growth, cell proliferation, and morphology in growing pigs. J Anim Sci 1994;72(9):2270–8.
60 Stanogias G, Pearce GR. The digestion of fibre by pigs. 3. Effects of the amount and type of fibre on physical characteristics of segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Br J Nutr 1985;53(3):537–48
61 Anugwa FO, Varel VH, Dickson JS, Pond WG, Krook LP. Effects of dietary fiber and protein concentration on growth, feed efficiency, visceral organ weights and large intestine microbial populations of swine. J Nutr 1989;119(6):879–86.
62 Pond WG, Varel VH, Dickson JS, Haschek WM. Comparative response of swine and rats to high-fiber or high-protein diets. J Anim Sci 1989;67(3):716–23
63 Nyachoti CM, de Lange CFM, McBride BW, Leeson S, Schulze H. Dietary influence on organ size and in vitro oxygen consumption by visceral organs of growing pigs. Livest Prod Sci 2000;65(3):229–37
64 Brunsgaard G. Effects of cereal type and feed particle size on morphological characteristics, epithelial cell proliferation, and lectin binding patterns in the large intestine of pigs. J Anim Sci 1998;76(11):2787–98
65 Serena A, Hedemann MS, Bach Knudsen KE. Influence of dietary fiber on luminal environment and morphology in the small and large intestine of sows. J Anim Sci 2008;86(9):2217–27
66 Mateos GG, Jiménez-Moreno E, Serrano MP, Lázaro RP. Poultry response to high levels of dietary fiber sources varying in physical and chemical characteristics. J Appl Poultry Res 2012;21(1):156–74
67 Yen JT. Oxygen consumption and energy flux of porcine splanchnic tissues. In: Laplace JP, Février C, Barbeau A, editors Digestive physiology in pigs: Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs. Paris: INRA; 1997. p. 260–9.
68 Yen JT, Nienaber JA, Hill DA, Pond WG. Oxygen consumption by portal vein-drained organs and by whole animal in conscious growing swine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1989;190(4):393–8
69 Kelly JM, McBride BW. The sodium pump and other mechanisms of thermogenesis in selected tissues. Proc Nutr Soc 1990;49(2):185–202
70 McBride BW, Kelly JM. Energy cost of absorption and metabolism in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and liver: A review. J Anim Sci 1990;68(9):2997–3010
71 Kelly JM, Southorn BG, Kelly CE, Milligan LP, McBride BW. Quantification of in vitro and in vivo energy metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract of fed or fasted sheep. Can J Anim Sci 1993;73(4):855–68
72 Yen JT, Nyachoti CM, de Lange CFM, Nienaber JA, Brown-Brandl TM. Effect of diet composition on organ size and energy expenditure in growing pigs. In: Lindberg JE, Ogle B, editors Digestive physiology of pigs: Proceedings of the 8th Symposium. Oxon: CABI Publishing; 2001. p. 98–100
73 Xu G, Baidoo SK, Johnston LJ, Bibus D, Cannon JE, Shurson GC. Effects of feeding diets containing increasing content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles to grower-finisher pigs on growth performance, carcass composition, and pork fat quality. J Anim Sci 2010;88(4):1398–410
74 Jha R, Htoo JK, Young MG, Beltranena E, Zijlstra RT. Effects of increasing co-product inclusion and reducing dietary protein on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and jowl fatty acid profile of growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 2013;91(5):2178–91
75 Lobley GE, Milne V, Lovie JM, Reeds PJ, Pennie K. Whole body and tissue protein synthesis in cattle. Br J Nutr 1980;43(3):491–502
76 Jha R, Berrocoso JD. Review: Dietary fiber utilization and its effects on physiological functions and gut health of swine. Animal 2015;9(9):1441–52
77 Choct M. Feed non-starch polysaccharides: Chemical structures and nutritional significance. Feed Mill Intern 1997 Jun:13–26.
78 Yen JT, Varel VH, Nienaber JA. Metabolic and microbial responses in western crossbred and Meishan growing pigs fed a high-fiber diet. J Anim Sci 2004;82(6):1740–55
79 Slavin J. Fiber and prebiotics: Mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients 2013;5(4):1417–35
80 Fouhse JM, Gänzle MG, Regmi PR, van Kempen TA, Zijlstra RT. High amylose starch with low in vitro digestibility stimulates hindgut fermentation and has a bifidogenic effect in weaned pigs. J Nutr 2015;145(11):2464–70
81 Bikker P, Dirkzwager A, Fledderus J, Trevisi P, le Huërou-Luron I, Lallès JP, et al.The effect of dietary protein and fermentable carbohydrates levels on growth performance and intestinal characteristics in newly weaned piglets. J Anim Sci 2006;84(12):3337–45
82 Bindelle J, Pieper R, Leterme P, Rossnagel B, Van Kessel AG. Changes in intestinal microbial ecophysiology as related to the carbohydrate composition of barleys and oats cultivars in an in vitro model of the pig gastrointestinal tract. Livest Sci 2010;133(1–3):151–3
83 Ivarsson E, Roos S, Liu HY, Lindberg JE. Fermentable non-starch polysaccharides increases the abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas in ileal microbial community of growing pigs. Animal 2014;8(11):1777–87
84 Montagne L, Cavaney FS, Hampson DJ, Lallès JP, Pluske JR. Effect of diet composition on postweaning colibacillosis in piglets. J Anim Sci 2004;82(8):2364–74
85 Hopwood DE, Pethick DW, Pluske JR, Hampson DJ. Addition of pearl barley to a rice-based diet for newly weaned piglets increases the viscosity of the intestinal contents, reduces starch digestibility and exacerbates post-weaning colibacillosis. Br J Nutr 2004;92(3):419–27
86 McDonald DE, Pethick DW, Mullan BP, Hampson DJ. Increasing viscosity of the intestinal contents alters small intestinal structure and intestinal growth, and stimulates proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in newly-weaned pigs. Br J Nutr 2001;86(4):487–98
87 Pluske JR, Durmic Z, Pethick DW, Mullan BP, Hampson DJ. Confirmation of the role of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates in the expression of swine dysentery in pigs after experimental infection. J Nutr 1998;128(10):1737–44.
88 Thomsen LE, Knudsen KEB, Jensen TK, Christensen AS, Møller K, Roepstorff A. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs. Vet Microbiol 2007;119(2–4):152–63
89 Molist F, Hermes RG, de Segura AG, Martín-Orúe SM, Gasa J, Manzanilla EG, et al.Effect and interaction between wheat bran and zinc oxide on productive performance and intestinal health in post-weaning piglets. Br J Nutr 2011;105(11):1592–600
90 Mateos GG, Jiménez-Moreno E, Serrano MP, Lázaro RP. Poultry response to high levels of dietary fiber sources varying in physical and chemical characteristics. J Appl Poult Res 2012;21(1):156–74
91 Kim JC, Mullan BP, Hampson DJ, Pluske JR. Addition of oat hulls to an extruded rice-based diet for weaner pigs ameliorates the incidence of diarrhoea and reduces indices of protein fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract. Br J Nutr 2008;99(6):1217–25
92 Kalmendal R, Elwinger K, Holm L, Tauson R. High-fibre sunflower cake affects small intestinal digestion and health in broiler chickens. Br Poult Sci 2011;52(1):86–96
93 Wellock IJ, Fortomaris PD, Houdijk JG, Wiseman J, Kyriazakis I. The consequences of non-starch polysaccharide solubility and inclusion level on the health and performance of weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Br J Nutr 2008;99(3):520–30
94 Whitney MH, Shurson GC, Guedes RC. Effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles on the ability of growing pigs to resist a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. J Anim Sci 2006;84(7):1860–9
95 Whitney MH, Shurson GC, Guedes RC. Effect of including distillers dried grains with solubles in the diet, with or without antimicrobial regimen, on the ability of growing pigs to resist a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. J Anim Sci 2006;84(7):1870–9
96 Molist F, Gómez de Segura A, Pérez JF, Bhandari SK, Krause DO, Nyachoti CM. Effect of wheat bran on the health and performance of weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88+. Livest Sci 2010;133(1–3):214–7
97 Smith AG, O’Doherty JV, Reilly P, Ryan MT, Bahar B, Sweeney T. The effects of laminarin derived from Laminaria digitata on measurements of gut health: Selected bacterial populations, intestinal fermentation, mucin gene expression and cytokine gene expression in the pig. Br J Nutr 2011;105(5):669–77
98 Molist F, Gómez de Segura A, Gasa J, Hermes RG, Manzanilla EG, Anguita M, et al.Effects of the insoluble and soluble dietary fibre on the physicochemical properties of digesta and the microbial activity in early weaned piglets. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2009;149(3–4):346–53
99 Pieper R, Jha R, Rossnagel B, Van Kessel AG, Souffrant WB, Leterme P. Effect of barley and oat cultivars with different carbohydrate compositions on the intestinal bacterial communities in weaned piglets. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2008;66(3):556–66
100 Lawrence AB, Terlouw EM. A review of behavioral factors involved in the development and continued performance of stereotypic behaviors in pigs. J Anim Sci 1993;71(10):2815–25.
101 Jørgensen H, Theil PK, Bach Knudsen KE. Satiating properties of diets rich in dietary fibre fed to sows as evaluated by physico-chemical properties, gastric emptying rate and physical activity. Livest Sci 2010;134(1–3):37–40
102 De Leeuw JA, Jongbloed AW, Verstegen MW. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa). J Nutr 2004;134(6):1481–6.
103 Sánchez D, Miguel M, Aleixandre A. Dietary fiber, gut peptides, and adipocytokines. J Med Food 2012;15(3):223–30
104 De Vries S, Pustjens AM, Schols HA, Hendriks WH, Gerrits WJJ. Improving digestive utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs in pigs and poultry by processing and enzyme technologies: A review. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2012;178(3–4):123–38
105 Rosenfelder P, Eklund M, Mosenthin R. Nutritive value of wheat and wheat by-products in pig nutrition: A review.Anim Feed Sci Tech 2012;185(3–4):107–25..
106 Adeola O, Cowieson AJ. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Opportunities and challenges in using exogenous enzymes to improve nonruminant animal production. J Anim Sci 2011;89(10):3189–218
107 Omogbenigun FO, Nyachoti CM, Slominski BA. Dietary supplementation with multienzyme preparations improves nutrient utilization and growth performance in weaned pigs. J Anim Sci 2004;82(4):1053–61
108 Feoli C. Use of corn- and sorghum-based distillers dried grains with solubles in diets for nursery and finishing pigs [dissertation]. Manhatten: Kansas State University; 2008.
109 Emiola IA, Opapeju FO, Slominski BA, Nyachoti CM. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed wheat distillers dried grains with solubles-based diets supplemented with a multicarbohydrase enzyme. J Anim Sci 2009;87(7):2315–22
110 Jones CK, Bergstrom JR, Tokach MD, DeRouchey JM, Goodband RD, Nelssen JL, et al.Efficacy of commercial enzymes in diets containing various concentrations and sources of dried distillers grains with solubles for nursery pigs. J Anim Sci 2010;88(6):2084–91
111 Jacela JY, Dritz SS, DeRouchey JM, Tokach MD, Goodband RD, Nelssen JL. Effects of supplemental enzymes in diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on finishing pig growth performance. Prof Anim Sci 2010;26(4):412–24
112 Kiarie E, Owusu-Asiedu A, Péron A, Simmins PH, Nyachoti CM. Efficacy of xylanase and β-glucanase blend in mixed grains and grain co-products-based diets for fattening pigs. Livest Sci 2012;148(1–2):129–33
113 Zhang GG, Yang ZB, Wang Y, Yang WR, Zhou HJ. Effects of dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, small intestinal digestive enzyme activities, and large intestinal selected microbiota in weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 2014;92(5):2063–9
114 Svihus B. Effect of digestive tract conditions, feed processing and ingredients on response to NSP enzymes. In: Bedford MR, Partridge GG, editors Enzymes in farm animal nutrition. Oxon: CABI Publishing; 2011. p. 129–59.
[1] Man-Chung Tang. Forms and Aesthetics of Bridges[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 267-276.
[2] Yong Zhao, Huawu He, Pengfei Li. Key Techniques for the Construction of High-Speed Railway Large-Section Loess Tunnels[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 254-259.
[3] Shutian Liu, Quhao Li, Junhuan Liu, Wenjiong Chen, Yongcun Zhang. A Realization Method for Transforming a Topology Optimization Design into Additive Manufacturing Structures[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 277-285.
[4] Gareth Mainwaring, Tor Ole Olsen. Long Undersea Tunnels: Recognizing and Overcoming the Logistics of Operation and Construction[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 249-253.
[5] Nichole Boultbee, Oliver Robson, Serge Moalli, Rich Humphries. Upper Lillooet River Hydroelectric Project: The Challenges of Constructing a Power Tunnel for Run-of-River Hydro Projects in Mountainous British Columbia[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 260-266.
[6] Davide Merlini, Daniele Stocker, Matteo Falanesca, Roberto Schuerch. The Ceneri Base Tunnel: Construction Experience with the Southern Portion of the Flat Railway Line Crossing the Swiss Alps[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 235-248.
[7] Perry Pei-Ju Yang, Cheryl Shu-Fang Chi, Yihan Wu, Steven Jige Quan. A Geodesign Method of Human-Energy-Water Interactive Systems for Urban Infrastructure Design: 10KM2 Near-Zero District Project in Shanghai[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 182-189.
[8] Huajian Zhou, Zhihua Zhong, Manjiang Hu. Design and Occupant-Protection Performance Analysis of a New Tubular Driver Airbag[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 291-297.
[9] Stephen M. Malone, Marc J. Weissburg, Bert Bras. Industrial Ecosystems and Food Webs: An Ecological-Based Mass Flow Analysis to Model the Progress of Steel Manufacturing in China[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 209-217.
[10] David F. Williams. Biocompatibility Pathways in Tissue-Engineering Templates[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 286-290.
[11] Yibo Zhang, J.P. Mohsen. A Project-Based Sustainability Rating Tool for Pavement Maintenance[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 200-208.
[12] Qian Li, Fengqing Guo, Yuntao Guan. A GIS-Based Evaluation of Environmental Sensitivity for an Urban Expressway in Shenzhen, China[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 230-234.
[13] Wenke Huang, Mingwei Hu. Estimation of the Impact of Traveler Information Apps on Urban Air Quality Improvement[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 224-229.
[14] Haibo Zhang, Changyu Yang. The Longest Railway Tunnel in China[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 165-166.
[15] Huibin Yu, Yonghui Song, Xin Chang, Hongjie Gao, Jianfeng Peng. A Scheme for a Sustainable Urban Water Environmental System During the Urbanization Process in China[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 190-193.
Full text



国内刊号:CN10-1244/N    国际刊号:ISSN2095-8099
版权所有 © 2015 高等教育出版社  《中国工程科学》杂志社