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Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (5) : 716-725     https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.03.010
Research |
高纤维日粮对猪营养和代谢的影响综述
 Atta K. Agyekum1,C. Martin Nyachoti2()
1. Prairie Swine Center Inc., Saskatoon, SK S7H 5N9, Canada
2. Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
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摘要 目前,大量的低成本、纤维类的副产物被添加到猪的日粮中以减少猪的养殖成本。然而,由于猪不能有效降解膳食纤维,因此富含纤维的日粮营养价值偏低。此外,高纤维日粮会降低营养物质的利用率和猪的生长性能。最近的研究结果不一致,甚至互相矛盾,而且纤维来源、纤维类型和纤维水平也会影响高纤维日粮的负效应。另外,测定膳食纤维及其纤维组成的分析方法会经常干扰纤维对猪生长和生理反应的影响。虽然已经有一些改善纤维对猪的消极影响、提高日粮的营养价值的方法被逐渐应用,如外源纤维降解酶广泛应用于提高营养物质利用率和猪的生长性能。但是,与研究结果并不一致,还需要阐明外源纤维降解酶在猪的代谢和生理反应中的作用方式。另外,膳食纤维日益成为促进猪的肠道健康和改善妊娠母猪福利的方法。本文对膳食纤维及其对猪的营养、肠道生理和母猪福利的影响进行了讨论。同时,本文建议要对膳食纤维和外源酶如何提高猪对高纤维原料的利用率方面进行深入的研究。
关键词 肠道生理高纤维日粮营养物质利用母猪福利    
Abstract

At present, substantial amounts of low-cost, fibrous co-products are incorporated into pig diets to reduce the cost of raising swine. However, diets that are rich in fiber are of low nutritive value because pigs cannot degrade dietary fiber. In addition, high-fiber diets have been associated with reduced nutrient utilization and pig performance. However, recent reports are often contradictory and the negative effects of high-fiber diets are influenced by the fiber source, type, and inclusion level. In addition, the effects of dietary fiber on pig growth and physiological responses are often confounded by the many analytical methods that are used to measure dietary fiber and its components. Several strategies have been employed to ameliorate the negative effects associated with the ingestion of high-fiber diets in pigs and to improve the nutritive value of such diets. Exogenous fiber-degrading enzymes are widely used to improve nutrient utilization and pig performance. However, the results of research reports have not been consistent and there is a need to elucidate the mode of action of exogenous enzymes on the metabolic and physiological responses in pigs that are fed high-fiber diets. On the other hand, dietary fiber is increasingly used as a means of promoting pig gut health and gestating sow welfare. In this review, dietary fiber and its effects on pig nutrition, gut physiology, and sow welfare are discussed. In addition, areas that need further research are suggested to gain more insight into dietary fiber and into the use of exogenous enzymes to improve the utilization of high-fiber diets by pigs.

Keywords Gut physiology      High-fiber diets      Nutrient utilization      Pigs      Sow welfare     
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Atta K. Agyekum
C. Martin Nyachoti
引用本文:   
Atta K. Agyekum,C. Martin Nyachoti. Nutritional and Metabolic Consequences of Feeding High-Fiber Diets to Swine: A Review[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 716-725.
网址:  
http://engineering.org.cn/EN/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.03.010     OR     http://engineering.org.cn/EN/Y2017/V3/I5/716
Animal type Challenge model Basal diet Type of NSPa Response Reference
Performance Intestinal health
Weanling pigs E. coli Rice Soluble ↓Daily gain ↑Infection, PWD incidence, proliferation, pH [85]
Weanling pigs E. coli Rice Soluble No effect ↑Infection, PWD incidence, proliferation; ↕pH [84]
Growing pigs Lawsonia intracellularis Corn-SBM Insoluble No effect ↕Lesion length, diarrhea prevalence, proliferation [94,95]
Growing pigs Swine dysentery Triticale, barley Soluble No effect ↓Infection, PWD incidence; ↕gut pH, SCFA [88]
Weanling pigs Non Rice, animal protein Insoluble No effect ↓PWD incidence; firmer stool [91]
Weanling pigs E. coli Porridge oats, wheat, animal protein Soluble No effect ↓Infection, PWD incidence, pH; ↑Lactobacillus: coliform [93]
Weanling pigs Non Corn, barley, soy protein concentrate Insoluble No effect ↕PWD incidence, lactobacilli; ↑SCFA; ↓E. coli, coliforms [89]
Weanling pigs E. coli Corn, wheat, barley, SBM Insoluble No effect ↕SCFA; ↓PWD incidence, E. coli; ↑microbial diversity [96]
Growing pigs Non Wheat, SBM Soluble No effect ↕Immune response, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, VFA; ↓Enterobacteriaceae [97]
Tab.1  Results of studies evaluating the effects of the type of non-starch polysaccharides on performance and gut health of pigs.
Diet composition NSP enzyme Pig Nutrient digestibility Performance Reference
Wheat, SBM, wheat screening, millrun Cellulase, galactanase, mannanase, and pectinase Nursery Improved DM, starch, energy, NSP, CP, and phytate digestibility Improved growth rate and feed efficiency [107]
Corn, SBM, DDGS (corn or sorghum) Xylanase, α-amylase, β-glucanase, and protease Nursery DM digestibility improved, but not CP and energy Improved feed efficiency, but not growth rate [108]
Corn, SBM, DDGS (corn or sorghum) Xylanase, α-amylase, β-glucanase, and protease Grower-finisher CP digestibility improved, but not DM and energy No significant improvement [108]
Corn, barley, SBM, wheat DDGS Xylanase, β-glucanase, and cellulase Grower-finisher Improved DM, CP, ether extract, and energy digestibility Improved growth rate and feed efficiency [109]
Corn, SBM, corn DDGS Xylanase, β-glucanase, and mannanase Nursery Not determined No significant improvement [110]
Corn, SBM, corn DDGS Xylanase, β-glucanase, protease, and mannanase Grower-finisher Not determined No significant improvement in all four studies [111]
Wheat, barley, corn, SBM, CM, corn DDSG, wheat middlings, rye Xylanase and β-glucanase Grower-finisher Improved DM, CP, and energy digestibility Improved gilt growth performance, but not barrows [112]
Corn-SBM, wheat middling, fish meal Xylanase, α-amylase, and protease Nursery Improved DM, CP, and energy digestibility Improved growth rate and feed efficiency [113]
Tab.2  Effects of supplementing fiber-rich diets with carbohydrase complex on nutrient digestibility and performance in pigs.
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