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Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (5) : 675-684
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Selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing (AM) technology has become an important option for the precise manufacturing of complex-shaped metallic parts with high performance. The SLM AM process involves complicated physicochemical phenomena, thermodynamic behavior, and phase transformation as a high-energy laser beam melts loose powder particles. This paper provides multiscale modeling and coordinated control for the SLM of metallic materials including an aluminum (Al)-based alloy (AlSi10Mg), a nickel (Ni)-based super-alloy (Inconel 718), and ceramic particle-reinforced Al-based and Ni-based composites. The migration and distribution mechanisms of aluminium nitride (AlN) particles in SLM-processed Al-based nanocomposites and the in situ formation of a gradient interface between the reinforcement and the matrix in SLM-processed tungsten carbide (WC)/Inconel 718 composites were studied in the microscale. The laser absorption and melting/densification behaviors of AlSi10Mg and Inconel 718 alloy powder were disclosed in the mesoscale. Finally, the stress development during line-by-line localized laser scanning and the parameter-dependent control methods for the deformation of SLM-processed composites were proposed in the macroscale. Multiscale numerical simulation and experimental verification methods are beneficial in monitoring the complicated powder-laser interaction, heat and mass transfer behavior, and microstructural and mechanical properties development during the SLM AM process.

Keywords Additive manufacturing      Selective laser melting      Multiscale modeling      Thermodynamics      Kinetics     
在线预览日期:    发布日期: 2017-11-08
Dongdong Gu
Chenglong Ma
Mujian Xia
Donghua Dai
Qimin Shi
Dongdong Gu,Chenglong Ma,Mujian Xia, et al. A Multiscale Understanding of the Thermodynamic and Kinetic Mechanisms of Laser Additive Manufacturing[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 675-684.
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Fig.1  Thermodynamic behavior of Al-alloy powder during SLM process based on mesoscale analysis. (a) Physical model and scanning strategy used in simulation and experiment; (b) the temperature counters (150 W, 1200 mm·s−1); (c) the velocity counters within the molten pool (150 W, 1200 mm·s−1); (d) the surface morphology of as-built track (150 W, 1200 mm·s−1); (e) the temperature counters (250 W, 600 mm·s−1); (f) the velocity counters within the molten pool (250 W, 600 mm·s−1); (g) the surface morphology of as-built track (250 W, 600 mm·s−1).
Fig.2  Tailoring laser processability of Inconel 718 by mesoscale analysis. (a) The temperature counters (90 W, 400 mm·s−1); (b) the cross-sectional quality of as-built layer (90 W, 400 mm·s−1); (c) the top surface morphology of as-built track (90 W, 400 mm·s−1); (d) the temperature counters (120 W, 400 mm·s−1); (e) the cross-sectional quality of as-built layer (120 W, 400 mm·s−1); (f) the top surface morphology of as-built track (120 W, 400 mm·s−1); (g) the high-magnitude microstructure morphology of top surface of as-built tracks (120 W, 400 mm·s−1).
Fig.3  Characteristics of velocity vector obtained around AlN reinforcing particles using various SLM processing parameters. (a) Laser power P = 100 W, laser energy density η = 550 J·mm−3; (b) P = 130 W, η = 660 J·mm−3; (c) P = 150 W, η = 830 J·mm−3; (d) P = 180 W, η = 1000 J·mm-3.
Fig.4  (a), (c) Pressure distribution in the neighboring region of AlN reinforcing particles and (b), (d) the corresponding distribution state of AlN reinforcing particles within the solidified matrix. (a), (b) Laser power P = 100 W, laser energy density η = 550 J·mm−3; (c), (d) P = 180 W, η = 1000 J·mm−3.
Fig.5  Numerical simulation results showing the (a) temperature field and (b) heat flow around the reinforcing particle (the bottom-left illustration in Fig. 5(b) showing local heat accumulation of particle); scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showing microstructure of (c) a radiative fashion around the WC particles and (d) tailored gradient interface of SLM-processed WC/Inconel 718 composites at laser power P = 125 W and scanning speed v = 100 mm·s−1.
Fig.6  (a) Temperature and temperature gradient and (b) cooling rate at the interface between the reinforcing particles and the matrix; (c) and (d) EDX line-scanning results showing the metallic element distribution in SLM-processed WC/Inconel 718 composites; (e) the formation mechanism of the tailored gradient interface in SLM-processed WC/Inconel 718 composites; (f) typical X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the primary powder and the SLM-processed WC/Inconel 718 composites obtained in a small range of 2θ= 42°–45°.
Fig.7  Variations of temperature and stress developed at the three target points. (a) 3D thermo-mechanical coupled FE model (Point 1, Point 2, and Point 3 locating respectively at the center of laser scan tracks corresponding to Paths n, n+ 1, and n+ 2 on the top layer); the variations of temperature and cooling rate of (b) Point 1, (c) Point 2, and (d) Point 3 with the laser beam traveling time; (e) von Mises equivalent stress, (f) X-component stress, and (g) Y-component stress of Point 1, Point 2, and Point 3 with the laser beam traveling time.
Fig.8  Z-component residual stress distributions of SLM-fabricated parts under different laser energy densities, η. (a) η = 833 J·m-1; (b) η = 1000 J·m-1; (c) η = 1250 J·m-1. Z1, Z2, and Z3 represent three different paths located at various powder layer thicknesses in Fig. 7(a). Z1 represents the top surface of the layer, Z2 is 37.5 μm from the top surface, and Z3 represents the bottom of the layer with 50.0 μm thickness.
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