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Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (5) : 675-684
Research |
1. College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
2. Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing), Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
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摘要 选择性激光熔化(SLM)增材制造(AM)技术已成为精密制造高性能复杂形状金属零件的重要选择。SLM AM 工艺涉及复杂的物理化学现象、热力学特性以及高能激光束融化散粉颗粒时产生的相变。本文提出了针对金属材料SLM 工艺的多尺度建模和协调控制,其中,金属材料包括铝(Al)基合金(AlSi10Mg)、镍(Ni)基超合金(Inconel 718)及陶瓷颗粒增强的铝基和镍基复合材料。从微观尺度研究氮化铝(AlN)颗粒在SLM 处理后的铝基纳米复合材料中的迁移和分布机制以及SLM处理后的碳化钨(WC)/Inconel 718 复合材料中增强体和基体之间梯度界面的原位形成。从中尺度研究AlSi10Mg 和Inconel 718 合金粉末的激光吸收和熔化/ 致密化特性。最后,从宏观尺度提出了逐行局部激光扫描过程中的应力发展和SLM 处理后的复合材料变形的参数依赖控制方法。多尺度数值模拟和实验验证方法有利于监测SLM AM 过程中复杂的粉末激光作用、传热传质特性以及微观结构和力学性能的发展。
关键词 增材制造选择性激光熔化多尺度建模热力学动力学    

Selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing (AM) technology has become an important option for the precise manufacturing of complex-shaped metallic parts with high performance. The SLM AM process involves complicated physicochemical phenomena, thermodynamic behavior, and phase transformation as a high-energy laser beam melts loose powder particles. This paper provides multiscale modeling and coordinated control for the SLM of metallic materials including an aluminum (Al)-based alloy (AlSi10Mg), a nickel (Ni)-based super-alloy (Inconel 718), and ceramic particle-reinforced Al-based and Ni-based composites. The migration and distribution mechanisms of aluminium nitride (AlN) particles in SLM-processed Al-based nanocomposites and the in situ formation of a gradient interface between the reinforcement and the matrix in SLM-processed tungsten carbide (WC)/Inconel 718 composites were studied in the microscale. The laser absorption and melting/densification behaviors of AlSi10Mg and Inconel 718 alloy powder were disclosed in the mesoscale. Finally, the stress development during line-by-line localized laser scanning and the parameter-dependent control methods for the deformation of SLM-processed composites were proposed in the macroscale. Multiscale numerical simulation and experimental verification methods are beneficial in monitoring the complicated powder-laser interaction, heat and mass transfer behavior, and microstructural and mechanical properties development during the SLM AM process.

Keywords Additive manufacturing      Selective laser melting      Multiscale modeling      Thermodynamics      Kinetics     
在线预览日期:    发布日期: 2017-11-08
Dongdong Gu
Chenglong Ma
Mujian Xia
Donghua Dai
Qimin Shi
Dongdong Gu,Chenglong Ma,Mujian Xia, et al. A Multiscale Understanding of the Thermodynamic and Kinetic Mechanisms of Laser Additive Manufacturing[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 675-684.
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Fig.1  Thermodynamic behavior of Al-alloy powder during SLM process based on mesoscale analysis. (a) Physical model and scanning strategy used in simulation and experiment; (b) the temperature counters (150 W, 1200 mm·s−1); (c) the velocity counters within the molten pool (150 W, 1200 mm·s−1); (d) the surface morphology of as-built track (150 W, 1200 mm·s−1); (e) the temperature counters (250 W, 600 mm·s−1); (f) the velocity counters within the molten pool (250 W, 600 mm·s−1); (g) the surface morphology of as-built track (250 W, 600 mm·s−1).
Fig.2  Tailoring laser processability of Inconel 718 by mesoscale analysis. (a) The temperature counters (90 W, 400 mm·s−1); (b) the cross-sectional quality of as-built layer (90 W, 400 mm·s−1); (c) the top surface morphology of as-built track (90 W, 400 mm·s−1); (d) the temperature counters (120 W, 400 mm·s−1); (e) the cross-sectional quality of as-built layer (120 W, 400 mm·s−1); (f) the top surface morphology of as-built track (120 W, 400 mm·s−1); (g) the high-magnitude microstructure morphology of top surface of as-built tracks (120 W, 400 mm·s−1).
Fig.3  Characteristics of velocity vector obtained around AlN reinforcing particles using various SLM processing parameters. (a) Laser power P = 100 W, laser energy density η = 550 J·mm−3; (b) P = 130 W, η = 660 J·mm−3; (c) P = 150 W, η = 830 J·mm−3; (d) P = 180 W, η = 1000 J·mm-3.
Fig.4  (a), (c) Pressure distribution in the neighboring region of AlN reinforcing particles and (b), (d) the corresponding distribution state of AlN reinforcing particles within the solidified matrix. (a), (b) Laser power P = 100 W, laser energy density η = 550 J·mm−3; (c), (d) P = 180 W, η = 1000 J·mm−3.
Fig.5  Numerical simulation results showing the (a) temperature field and (b) heat flow around the reinforcing particle (the bottom-left illustration in Fig. 5(b) showing local heat accumulation of particle); scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showing microstructure of (c) a radiative fashion around the WC particles and (d) tailored gradient interface of SLM-processed WC/Inconel 718 composites at laser power P = 125 W and scanning speed v = 100 mm·s−1.
Fig.6  (a) Temperature and temperature gradient and (b) cooling rate at the interface between the reinforcing particles and the matrix; (c) and (d) EDX line-scanning results showing the metallic element distribution in SLM-processed WC/Inconel 718 composites; (e) the formation mechanism of the tailored gradient interface in SLM-processed WC/Inconel 718 composites; (f) typical X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the primary powder and the SLM-processed WC/Inconel 718 composites obtained in a small range of 2θ= 42°–45°.
Fig.7  Variations of temperature and stress developed at the three target points. (a) 3D thermo-mechanical coupled FE model (Point 1, Point 2, and Point 3 locating respectively at the center of laser scan tracks corresponding to Paths n, n+ 1, and n+ 2 on the top layer); the variations of temperature and cooling rate of (b) Point 1, (c) Point 2, and (d) Point 3 with the laser beam traveling time; (e) von Mises equivalent stress, (f) X-component stress, and (g) Y-component stress of Point 1, Point 2, and Point 3 with the laser beam traveling time.
Fig.8  Z-component residual stress distributions of SLM-fabricated parts under different laser energy densities, η. (a) η = 833 J·m-1; (b) η = 1000 J·m-1; (c) η = 1250 J·m-1. Z1, Z2, and Z3 represent three different paths located at various powder layer thicknesses in Fig. 7(a). Z1 represents the top surface of the layer, Z2 is 37.5 μm from the top surface, and Z3 represents the bottom of the layer with 50.0 μm thickness.
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