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Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (5) : 695-700
Research |
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In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD) for the selective laser melting (SLM) process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g)-1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

Keywords Additive manufacturing      Powder characteristics      Gas atomization      Microstructure      Inconel     
最新录用日期:    在线预览日期:    发布日期: 2017-11-08
Quy Bau Nguyen
Mui Ling Sharon Nai
Zhiguang Zhu
Chen-Nan Sun
Jun Wei
Wei Zhou
Quy Bau Nguyen,Mui Ling Sharon Nai,Zhiguang Zhu, et al. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 695-700.
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Material Ni Ti Cr Mo Nb Fe C Mn Si Al Co Cu
Virgin (wt%) 52.35 0.85 20.12 3.04 5.10 Balance 0.013 0.09 0.08 0.60 0.16 0.012
Recycled (wt%) 52.32 0.83 20.15 2.96 5.05 Balance 0.019 0.08 0.08 0.55 0.15 0.011
Tab.1  Chemical composition of virgin and recycled IN718 powders.
Material D10 (μm) D50 (μm) D90 (μm) Hall flow rate (s·(50 g)−1)
Virgin 21.37±0.43 31.24±0.97 49.52±0.76 28.35±0.32
Recycled 21.92±0.54 32.35±0.78 50.71±0.85 29.47±0.42
Tab.2  PSD and Hall flow rate of virgin and recycled IN718 powders.
Fig.1  Cross-section of virgin and recycled Inconel powders.
Fig.2  PSD and surface morphology of virgin and recycled Inconel powders.
Material BFE (mJ) SI FRI SE (mJ·g−1) CBD (g·mL−1) CPS (%, at 15 kPa)
Virgin 1032±11 1.03±0.04 1.09±0.03 3.32±0.06 4.63±0.05 2.8±0.2
Recycled 1091±13 1.07±0.07 1.15±0.06 3.75±0.09 4.37±0.07 4.3±0.3
Material Cohesion (kPa) UYS (kPa) MPS (kPa) FF AIF (o) WFA (o)
Virgin 0.3±0.1 0.9±0.1 12.5±0.6 15.1±0.3 23.4±0.2 15.1±0.4
Recycled 0.5±0.1 1.5±0.2 13.1±0.8 8.8±0.5 23.7±0.2 17.4±0.4
Tab.3  Rheological results of virgin and recycled IN718 powders.
Fig.3  The results of rheological tests for virgin and recycled IN718 powders. (a) Stability and variable flow rate (VFR) test; (b) CPS test; (c) shear test; (d) wall friction test.
Fig.4  A propeller printed using EOS-M400 machine.
Fig.5  Typical microstructure of IN 718. (a) 3D view; (b) higher magnification showing column structure in XZ plane.
Material Apparent density
Tapped density a
True density
Packing at apparent density (%) Packing at tapped density (%)
Virgin 3.8780±0.0172 4.9123±0.0153 8.1794±0.0059 47.4±0.3 60.0±0.2
Recycled 3.7875±0.0191 4.8755±0.0165 8.1803±0.0035 46.3±0.5 59.2±0.6
Tab.4  Results of apparent, tapped, and true densities, and packing capability of virgin and recycled IN718 powders.
Material Microhardness
IN718-Virgin 325±12 1210±25 1404±32 18.5±1.6
IN718-Recycled 321±17 1178±31 1369±35 17.4±1.7
Tab.5  Mechanical properties of parts printed using the virgin and recycled Inconel powder.
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