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Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (5) : 653-662
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Medical models, or “phantoms,” have been widely used for medical training and for doctor-patient interactions. They are increasingly used for surgical planning, medical computational models, algorithm verification and validation, and medical devices development. Such new applications demand high-fidelity, patient-specific, tissue-mimicking medical phantoms that can not only closely emulate the geometric structures of human organs, but also possess the properties and functions of the organ structure. With the rapid advancement of three-dimensional (3D) printing and 3D bioprinting technologies, many researchers have explored the use of these additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate functional medical phantoms for various applications. This paper reviews the applications of these 3D printing and 3D bioprinting technologies for the fabrication of functional medical phantoms and bio-structures. This review specifically discusses the state of the art along with new developments and trends in 3D printed functional medical phantoms (i.e., tissue-mimicking medical phantoms, radiologically relevant medical phantoms, and physiological medical phantoms) and 3D bio-printed structures (i.e., hybrid scaffolding materials, convertible scaffolds, and integrated sensors) for regenerated tissues and organs.

Keywords 3D printing      3D bioprinting      Medical phantom      Regenerated tissue/organ      Scaffold     
最新录用日期:    在线预览日期:    发布日期: 2017-11-08
Kan Wang
Chia-Che Ho
Chuck Zhang
Ben Wang
Kan Wang,Chia-Che Ho,Chuck Zhang, et al. A Review on the 3D Printing of Functional Structures for Medical Phantoms and Regenerated Tissue and Organ Applications[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 653-662.
网址:     OR
Fig.1  Comparison of the mechanical behaviors of soft tissue and polymer. (a) Typical stress-strain curves of soft tissue (dotted line) and polymer (solid line). Soft tissue: i—toe region, ii—elastic region, iii—plastic region, iv—failure region; polymer: I—primary creep, II—secondary creep, III—tertiary creep. (b) Magnified view of the curves in the strain range of interest for most tissue-mimicking medical phantoms [39].
Fig.2  CAD models and printed samples of three metamaterials: (a) sinusoidal wave design, (b) double helix design, and (c) interlocking chain design [39].
Fig.3  Stress-strain curves of the four variants of the sinusoidal wave (SW) design [39].
Fig.4  An example of CT images of the aortic root, the 3D computational model, and the 3D-printed physiological phantom. (a), (b), and (c) show the CT cross-sectional views at the ascending aorta and the valves, and the longitudinal view, respectively. (d), (e), and (f) show the 3D computational model viewed from the ascending aorta, the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), and the side, respectively. The aortic wall and leaflets are depicted semi-transparently, the calcifications are drawn in red, and the embedded fibers are drawn in green. (g), (h), and (i) show the 3D-printed physiological phantom. The calcifications and the fibers are printed with black materials for better illustration [44].
Fig.5  Prediction of the PVL locations in 12 patients who had a certain degree of post-TAVR PVL. In the bulge index images, green arrows indicate correct prediction of the dominant PVL sites; red arrows indicate that the maximum bulge index did not predict the dominant PVL site; yellow arrows indicate that a submaximal high bulge index corresponded to the dominant PVL site. In the transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) images, white arrows indicate the dominant PVL sites, and yellow arrows indicate the minor PVL sites [44].
Fig.6  A conceptual setup for multi-material 3D bioprinting.
Fig.7  A conceptual setup for in situ surface modification.
Fig.8  Comparison of pre-mix method and in situ grafting method for fabricating scaffolds with multiple growth factors. (a) Pre-mix method: (i) mixing scaffold material with growth factors, (ii) printing scaffold material/growth factor A (S/GF-A) as the scaffold at region A, (iii) printing scaffold material/growth factor B (S/GF-B) as the scaffold at region B; (b) in situ grafting method: (i) printing the scaffold with pure scaffold material, (ii) coating region A with growth factor A, (iii) coating region B with growth factor B.
Fig.9  A double arrowhead auxetic design. (a) Computer-aided design; (b) microscopic picture of a scaffold printed by GeSiM™ bioplotter (distance between marks is 1 mm).
Fig.10  Typical inks used in various direct-write technologies, including (a) metal nanoparticles, (b) carbon nanotubes, (c) graphite, (d) carbon nanotubes/silver nanoparticles, and (e) polyimide.
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