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Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (5) : 663-674
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The rapid development of additive manufacturing and advances in shape memory materials have fueled the progress of four-dimensional (4D) printing. With the right external stimulus, the need for human interaction, sensors, and batteries will be eliminated, and by using additive manufacturing, more complex devices and parts can be produced. With the current understanding of shape memory mechanisms and with improved design for additive manufacturing, reversibility in 4D printing has recently been proven to be feasible. Conventional one-way 4D printing requires human interaction in the programming (or shape-setting) phase, but reversible 4D printing, or two-way 4D printing, will fully eliminate the need for human interference, as the programming stage is replaced with another stimulus. This allows reversible 4D printed parts to be fully dependent on external stimuli; parts can also be potentially reused after every recovery, or even used in continuous cycles—an aspect that carries industrial appeal. This paper presents a review on the mechanisms of shape memory materials that have led to 4D printing, current findings regarding 4D printing in alloys and polymers, and their respective limitations. The reversibility of shape memory materials and their feasibility to be fabricated using three-dimensional (3D) printing are summarized and critically analyzed. For reversible 4D printing, the methods of 3D printing, mechanisms used for actuation, and strategies to achieve reversibility are also highlighted. Finally, prospective future research directions in reversible 4D printing are suggested.

Keywords 4D printing      Additive manufacturing      Shape memory material      Smart materials      Shape memory alloy      Shape memory polymer     
在线预览日期:    发布日期: 2017-11-09
Amelia Yilin Lee
Jia An
Chee Kai Chua
Amelia Yilin Lee,Jia An,Chee Kai Chua. Two-Way 4D Printing: A Review on the Reversibility of 3D-Printed Shape Memory Materials[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 663-674.
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Fig.1  (a) The process chain of an irreversible (one-way) shape memory effect; (b) the process chain of a reversible (two-way) shape memory effect.
Fig.2  SMA phases and crystal structures. When a twinned martensite is loaded till yield strength σγ, the high stress and strain will change the martensite to detwinned martensite. After the stress is unloaded, the structure remains until it is heated to between Af and Md. When cooled below Mf, twinned martensite will form; if above Mf detwinned martensite will form. (Permission obtained from Ref. [23])
Fig.3  Basic working mechanisms for thermo-responsive SMPs. (a) DSM; (b) DCM; (c) PTM. Four steps: (i) original sample at low temperature; (ii) upon heating and compressing; (iii) after cooling and constraint removal; (iv) after heating for shape recovery. (Permission obtained from Ref. [84])
Fig.4  Molecular mechanism of a photo-responsive SMP in a grafted polymer network. Hollow triangles represent chromophores, filled circles represent permanent crosslinks, and filled diamonds represent photo-reversible crosslinks. (Permission obtained from Ref. [78])
Fig.5  Folding of an unpacked cube with hinges composed of a smart hydrophilic polymeric material; when submerged in water, the smart material actuates and the object folds into a cube. (Permission obtained from Ref. [16])
Fig.6  Complex low-temperature shapes of PAC laminates obtained by design of the laminate architecture. (a) A bilayer laminate (with one layer designed as a lamina with fibers at a prescribed orientation and the other layer as a pure matrix material) is printed, and then heated to TH (high temperature of 60?°C), stretched, cooled to TL (low temperature of 15?°C), and released. Upon release of the stress, it assumes a complex shape, depending on the laminate architecture. Upon reheating, it then assumes its original shape, a flat rectangular strip. (b) An actual strip in its original shape. (c)–(h) Results of this process with differing fiber architectures. (Permission obtained from Ref. [99])
Fig.7  The printing pattern used for a cubic box, and the resulting print at various temperatures. (a) Patterns for the print head movement to construct: (i) the base; (ii) the actuating parts; (iii) their surrounding matrix. (b) A series of images of the printed box: (i) the box as printed; (ii) the same printed box in a swollen state at room temperature; (iii) its thermal response at 60?°C. The scale bar is 1?cm. The broken lines highlight the edge of the hydrogels. (Permission obtained from Ref. [133])
AM process categories based on ASTM F2792 standard [4]AM systemsApplicable materialsRefs.
Binder jettingNANANA
Directed energy depositionLMDMetals[59,60]
NiTi and Cu alloys
Material extrusionFDMPolymers[119121]
PLA and wood-reinforced composites
Hydrogel extrusionPolymers[123125,133,134]
Material jettingMaterial jetting by PolyJetPolymers[16,99111,132]
Proprietary materials
Powder bed fusionSLMMetals[4455]
NiTi and Cu-Al-Ni-Mn alloys
NiTi alloys
Sheet laminationNANANA
Vat photopolymerizationStereolithographyPolymers[113115,117]
PCL and novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate
Methacrylate PCL
Tab.1  Summary of additive manufacturing techniques and applicable shape memory materials for each technique.
Fig.8  Timeline of the progress in SMPs and 3D-printed SMPs.
Conventional SMAs3D-printed SMAsConventional SMPs3D-printed SMPs



and more




Thermo-responsive in LCE
Thermo- and mechano-responsive in semi-crystalline elastomer laminates

Thermo- and chemo-responsive

Tab.2  Summary of the available stimuli for conventional SMAs, 3D-printed SMAs, conventional SMPs, and 3D-printed SMPs.
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