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Engineering    2016, Vol. 2 Issue (4) : 470 -480     DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.04.008
Research |
Water, Air Emissions, and Cost Impacts of Air-Cooled Microturbines for Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems: A Case Study in the Atlanta Region
Jean-Ann James1,2,(),Valerie M. Thomas3,4,Arka Pandit1,2,Duo Li5,John C. Crittenden1,2
1. Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
2. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
3. H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
4. School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
5. Crittenden and Associates, Beijing 100102, China

The increasing pace of urbanization means that cities and global organizations are looking for ways to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems have the potential to improve the energy generation efficiency of a city or urban region by providing energy for heating, cooling, and electricity simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to estimate the water consumption for energy generation use, carbon dioxide (CO2) and NOx emissions, and economic impact of implementing CCHP systems for five generic building types within the Atlanta metropolitan region, under various operational scenarios following the building thermal (heating and cooling) demands. Operating the CCHP system to follow the hourly thermal demand reduces CO2 emissions for most building types both with and without net metering. The system can be economically beneficial for all building types depending on the price of natural gas, the implementation of net metering, and the cost structure assumed for the CCHP system. The greatest reduction in water consumption for energy production and NOx emissions occurs when there is net metering and when the system is operated to meet the maximum yearly thermal demand, although this scenario also results in an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and, in some cases, cost. CCHP systems are more economical for medium office, large office, and multifamily residential buildings.

Keywords Combined cooling heating and power (CCHP)      Air-cooled microturbines      Distributed energy generation      Water for energy production      Net metering     
Corresponding Authors: Jean-Ann James   
Online First Date: 27 December 2016    Issue Date: 28 December 2016
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Jean-Ann James
Valerie M. Thomas
Arka Pandit
Duo Li
John C. Crittenden
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Jean-Ann James,Valerie M. Thomas,Arka Pandit, et al. Water, Air Emissions, and Cost Impacts of Air-Cooled Microturbines for Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems: A Case Study in the Atlanta Region[J]. Engineering, 2016, 2(4): 470 -480 .
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