Please wait a minute...
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
 
Advanced Search
   Home  |  Online Now  |  Current Issue  |  Focus  |  Archive  |  For Authors  |  Journal Information   Open Access  
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (2) : 171 -178     https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.02.006
Research |
New Trends in Olefin Production
Ismaël Amghizar,Laurien A. Vandewalle,Kevin M. Van Geem(),Guy B. Marin
Laboratory for Chemical Technology, Ghent University, Ghent B-9052, Belgium
Abstract
Abstract  

Most olefins (e.g., ethylene and propylene) will continue to be produced through steam cracking (SC) of hydrocarbons in the coming decade. In an uncertain commodity market, the chemical industry is investing very little in alternative technologies and feedstocks because of their current lack of economic viability, despite decreasing crude oil reserves and the recognition of global warming. In this perspective, some of the most promising alternatives are compared with the conventional SC process, and the major bottlenecks of each of the competing processes are highlighted. These technologies emerge especially from the abundance of cheap propane, ethane, and methane from shale gas and stranded gas. From an economic point of view, methane is an interesting starting material, if chemicals can be produced from it. The huge availability of crude oil and the expected substantial decline in the demand for fuels imply that the future for proven technologies such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or methanol to gasoline is not bright. The abundance of cheap ethane and the large availability of crude oil, on the other hand, have caused the SC industry to shift to these two extremes, making room for the on-purpose production of light olefins, such as by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane.

Keywords Olefin production      Steam cracking      Methane conversion      Shale gas      CO2 emissions     
Fund: 
Corresponding Authors: Kevin M. Van Geem   
Just Accepted Date: 16 March 2017   Online First Date: 07 April 2017    Issue Date: 27 April 2017
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Ismaë
l Amghizar
Laurien A. Vandewalle
Kevin M. Van Geem
Guy B. Marin
Cite this article:   
Ismaë,l Amghizar,Laurien A. Vandewalle, et al. New Trends in Olefin Production[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(2): 171 -178 .
URL:  
http://engineering.org.cn/EN/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.02.006     OR     http://engineering.org.cn/EN/Y2017/V3/I2/171
References
1   Zimmermann H, Walzl R. Ethylene. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009.
2   BP plc. BP statistical review of world energy. BP technical report. London: BP plc; 2013 Jun.
3   United States Energy Information Administration. Annual energy outlook 2015 with projections to 2040. Washington, DC: United States Energy Information Administration; 2015.
4   Sattler JJ, Ruiz-Martinez J, Santillan-Jimenez E, Weckhuysen BM. Catalytic dehydrogenation of light alkanes on metals and metal oxides. Chem Rev 2014;114(20):10613–53
doi: 10.1021/cr5002436
5   Bruijnincx PC, Weckhuysen BM. Shale gas revolution: An opportunity for the production of biobased chemicals? Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2013;52(46):11980–7
doi: 10.1002/anie.201305058
6   Siirola JJ. The impact of shale gas in the chemical industry. AIChE J 2014;60(3):810–9
doi: 10.1002/aic.14368
7   Yang CJ. US shale gas versus China’s coal as chemical feedstock. Environ Sci Technol 2015;49(16):9501–2
doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03562
8   Ding J, Hua W. Game changers of the C3 value chain: Gas, coal, and biotechnologies. Chem Eng Technol 2013;36(1):83–90
doi: 10.1002/ceat.201200297
9   New ExxonMobil and Saudi Aramco technologies produce ethylene directly from crude oil, cutting refining costs, IHS says [Interent]. London: IHS Markit; 2016 Jul 6 [cited 2016 Dec 16].Available from: http://news.ihsmarkit.com/press-release/new-exxonmobil-and-saudi-aramco-technologies-produce-ethylene-directly-crude-oil-cutti.
10   Al-Salem S, Lettieri P, Baeyens J. Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): A review. Waste Manag 2009;29(10):2625–43
doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.06.004
11   Al-Salem S, Lettieri P, Baeyens J. The valorization of plastic solid waste (PSW) by primary to quaternary routes: From re-use to energy and chemicals. Prog Energ Combust 2010;36(1):103–29
doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2009.09.001
12   Bridgwater AV. Review of fast pyrolysis of biomass and product upgrading. Biomass Bioenerg 2012;38:68–94
doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.01.048
13   Putro JN, Soetaredjo FE, Lin SY, Ju YH, Ismadji S. Pretreatment and conversion of lignocellulose biomass into valuable chemicals. RSC Adv 2016;6(52):46834–52
doi: 10.1039/C6RA09851G
14   Van Geem KM, Reyniers MF, Marin GB. Challenges of modeling steam cracking of heavy feedstocks. Oil Gas Sci Technol?Rev IFP 2008;63(1):79–94
doi: 10.2516/ogst:2007084
15   Nizamoff AJ. Renewable liquids as steam cracker feedstocks, PERP09/10S12.White Plains: Nexant, Inc.; 2010 Oct.
16   Foster J. Platts special report: Petrochemicals. Can shale gale save the naphtha crackers?London: Platts; 2013 Jan.
17   Longden R. INEOS Europe and Evergas enter into long-term shipping agreements [Internet].?Rolle: INEOS Olefins and Polymers Europe; 2013 Jan 23 [cited 2016 Dec 16]. Available from: http://www.ineos.com/news/shared-news/ineos-europe-and-evergas-enter-into-long-term-shipping-agreements/.
18   Tullo AH. Ethane supplier to the world—Chemical makers on three continents are set to tap into cheap feedstock from the US. Chem Eng News 2016; 94(44):28–9.
19   Pang P. Unconventional feedstocks to increase China’s clout in global chemical markets [Interent]. London: IHS Markit; 2014 May 20 [cited 2016 Dec 16]. Available from: http://blog.ihs.com/q12-unconventional-feedstocks-to-increase-chinas-clout-in-global-chemical-markets.
20   Plotkin JS. The propylene gap: How can it be filled? Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 2015 Sep.
21   Kumar S, Panda AK, Singh R K. A review on tertiary recycling of high-density polyethylene to fuel. Resour Conserv Recy 2011;55(11):893–910
doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.05.005
22   Garforth AA, Ali S, Hernández-Martínez J, Akah A. Feedstock recycling of polymer wastes. Curr Opin Solid St M 2004;8(6):419–25
doi: 10.1016/j.cossms.2005.04.003
23   Kee RJ, Karakaya C, Zhu H. Process intensification in the catalytic conversion of natural gas to fuels and chemicals. P Combust Inst 2017;36(1):51–76
doi: 10.1016/j.proci.2016.06.014
24   Spath PL, Dayton DC. Preliminary screening; Technical and economic assessment of synthesis gas to fuels and chemicals with emphasis on the potential for biomass-derived syngas. Technical report. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory; 2003 Dec. Report No.: NREL/TP-510-34929. DOE Contract No.: AC36-99-GO10337.
25   Stöcker M. Methanol-to-hydrocarbons: Catalytic materials and their behavior. Micropor Mesopor Mat 1999;29(1–2):3–48
doi: 10.1016/S1387-1811(98)00319-9
26   Dry ME. High quality diesel via the Fischer–Tropsch process—A review. J Chem Technol Biot 2002;77(1):43–50
doi: 10.1002/jctb.527
27   Chang CD, Silvestri AJ. The conversion of methanol and other O-compounds to hydrocarbons over zeolite catalysts. J Catal 1977;47(2):249–59
doi: 10.1016/0021-9517(77)90172-5
28   Keil FJ. Methanol-to-hydrocarbons: Process technology. Micropor Mesopor Mat 1999;29(1–2):49–66
doi: 10.1016/S1387-1811(98)00320-5
29   Chen JQ, Bozzano A, Glover B, Fuglerud T, Kvisle S. Recent advancements in ethylene and propylene production using the UOP/Hydro MTO process. Catal Today 2005;106(1–4):103–7
doi: 10.1016/j.cattod.2005.07.178
30   Tian P, Wei Y, Ye M, Liu Z. Methanol to olefins (MTO): From fundamentals to commercialization. ACS Catal 2015;5(3):1922–38
doi: 10.1021/acscatal.5b00007
31   Chen D, Moljord K, Holmen A. A methanol to olefins review: Diffusion, coke formation and deactivation on SAPO type catalysts. Micropor Mesopor Mat 2012;164:239–50
doi: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2012.06.046
32   Dry ME. Fischer–Tropsch reactions and the environment. Appl Catal A?Gen 1999;189(2):185–90
doi: 10.1016/S0926-860X(99)00275-6
33   Schulz H. Short history and present trends of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Appl Catal A ? Gen 1999;186(1–2):3–12
doi: 10.1016/S0926-860X(99)00160-X
34   Wood DA, Nwaoha C, Towler BF. Gas-to-liquids (GTL): A review of an industry offering several routes for monetizing natural gas. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 2012;9:196–208
doi: 10.1016/j.jngse.2012.07.001
35   Dry ME. The Fischer–Tropsch process: 1950–2000. Catal Today 2002;71(3–4):227–41
doi: 10.1016/S0920-5861(01)00453-9
36   Cheng J, Hu P, Ellis P, French S, Kelly G, Lok CM. Some understanding of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis from density functional theory calculations. Top Catal 2010;53(5):326–37
doi: 10.1007/s11244-010-9450-7
37   Dry ME. Practical and theoretical aspects of the catalytic Fischer–Tropsch process. Appl Catal A?Gen 1996;138(2):319–44
doi: 10.1016/0926-860X(95)00306-1
38   Torres Galvis HM, Bitter JH, Khare CB, Ruitenbeek M, Dugulan AI, de Jong KP. Supported iron nanoparticles as catalysts for sustainable production of lower olefins. Science 2012;335(6070):835–8
doi: 10.1126/science.1215614
39   Torres Galvis HM, de Jong KP. Catalysts for production of lower olefins from synthesis gas: A review. ACS Catal 2013;3(9):2130–49
doi: 10.1021/cs4003436
40   Kondratenko EV, Baems M. Oxidative Coupling of Methane. In:Ertl G,KnözingerH, Schüth F, Weitkamp J, editors Handbook of heterogeneous catalysis. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2008. p. 3010–23
doi: 10.1002/9783527610044.hetcat0152
41   Kondratenko EV, Schlüter M, Baerns M, Linke D, Holena M. Developing catalytic materials for the oxidative coupling of methane through statistical analysis of literature data. Catal Sci Technol 2015;5(3):1668–77
doi: 10.1039/C4CY01443J
42   Olivos-Suarez AI, Szécsényi À, Hensen EJM, Ruiz-Martinez J, Pidko EA, Gascon J. Strategies for the direct catalytic valorization of methane using heterogeneous catalysis: Challenges and opportunities. ACS Catal 2016;6(5):2965–81
doi: 10.1021/acscatal.6b00428
43   Keller GE, Bhasin MM. Synthesis of ethylene via oxidative coupling of methane: I. Determination of active catalysts. J Catal 1982;73(1):9–19
doi: 10.1016/0021-9517(82)90075-6
44   Galadima A, Muraza O. Revisiting the oxidative coupling of methane to ethylene in the golden period of shale gas: A review. J Ind Eng Chem 2016;37:1–13
doi: 10.1016/j.jiec.2016.03.027
45   Jašo S, Arellano-Garcia H, Wozny G. Oxidative coupling of methane in a fluidized bed reactor: Influence of feeding policy, hydrodynamics, and reactor geometry. Chem Eng J 2011;171(1):255–71
doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.03.077
46   Mleczko L, Pannek U, Niemi VM, Hiltunen J. Oxidative coupling of methane in a fluidized-bed reactor over a highly active and selective catalyst. Ind Eng Chem Res 1996;35(1):54–61
doi: 10.1021/ie950145s
47   Karakaya C, Kee RJ. Progress in the direct catalytic conversion of methane to fuels and chemicals. Prog Energ Combust 2016;55:60–97
doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2016.04.003
48   Xu M, Lunsford JH. Effect of temperature on methyl radical generation over Sr/La2O3catalysts. Catal Lett 1991;11(3–6):295–300
doi: 10.1007/BF00764320
49   Feng Y, Niiranen J, Gutman D. Kinetic studies of the catalytic oxidation of methane. 1. Methyl radical production on 1% Sr/La2O3. J Phys Chem 1991;95(17):6558–63
doi: 10.1021/j100170a035
50   Taylor RP, Schrader GL. Lanthanum catalysts for CH4 oxidative coupling: A comparison of the reactivity of phases. Ind Eng Chem Res 1991;30(5):1016–23
doi: 10.1021/ie00053a025
51   Tang L, Yamaguchi D, Wong L, Burke N, Chiang K. The promoting effect of ceria on Li/MgO catalysts for the oxidative coupling of methane. Catal Today 2011;178(1):172–80
doi: 10.1016/j.cattod.2011.07.014
52   Ito T, Wang J, Lin CH, Lunsford JH. Oxidative dimerization of methane over a lithium-promoted magnesium oxide catalyst. J Am Chem Soc 1985;107(18):5062–8
doi: 10.1021/ja00304a008
53   Arndt S, Simon U, Heitz S, Berthold A, Beck B, Görke O, et al.Li-doped MgOfrom different preparative routes for the oxidative coupling of methane. Top Catal 2011;54(16):1266–85
doi: 10.1007/s11244-011-9749-z
54   Myrach P, Nilius N, Levchenko SV, Gonchar A, Risse T, Dinse KP, et al.Temperature-dependent morphology, magnetic and optical properties of Li-doped MgO. Chem Cat Chem 2010;2(7):854–62
doi: 10.1002/cctc.201000083
55   Hiyoshi N, Ikeda T. Oxidative coupling of methane over alkali chloride–Mn–Na2WO4/SiO2 catalysts: Promoting effect of molten alkali chloride. Fuel Process Technol 2015;133:29–34
doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.01.003
56   Elkins TW, Hagelin-Weaver HE. Characterization of Mn–Na2WO4/SiO2 and Mn–Na2WO4/MgO catalysts for the oxidative coupling of methane. Appl Catal A?Gen 2015;497:96–106
doi: 10.1016/j.apcata.2015.02.040
57   Koirala R, Büchel R, Pratsinis SE, Baiker A. Oxidative coupling of methane on flame-made Mn–Na2WO4/SiO2: Influence of catalyst composition and reaction conditions. Appl Catal A?Gen 2014;484:97–107
doi: 10.1016/j.apcata.2014.07.013
58   Huang P, Zhao Y, Zhang J, Zhu Y, Sun Y. Exploiting shape effects of La2O3nanocatalysts for oxidative coupling of methane reaction. Nanoscale 2013;5(22):10844–8
doi: 10.1039/c3nr03617k
59   Hou YH, Han WC, Xia WS, Wan HL. Structure sensitivity of La2O2CO3catalysts in the oxidative coupling of methane. ACS Catal 2015;5(3):1663–74
doi: 10.1021/cs501733r
60   Song J, Sun Y, Ba R, Huang S, Zhao Y, Zhang J, et al.Monodisperse Sr–La2O3 hybrid nanofibers for oxidative coupling of methane to synthesize C2 hydrocarbons. Nanoscale 2015;7(6):2260–4
doi: 10.1039/C4NR06660J
61   Scher EC, Cizeron JM, Schammel WP, Tkachenko A, Gamoras J, Karshtedt D, et al., inventors; Siluria Technologies, Inc., assignee. Method for the oxidative coupling of methane in the presence of a nanowire catalyst. European Patent EP 2853521 A1. 2015 Apr 1.
62   Schammel WP, Wolfenbarger J, Ajinkya M, Mccarty J, Cizeron JM, Weinberger S, et al., inventors; Siluria Technologies, Inc., assignee. Oxidative coupling of methane systems and methods. PCT Patent WO 2013177433 A2. 2013 Nov 28.
63   Zohour B, Noon D, Senkan S. New insights into the oxidative coupling of methane from spatially resolved concentration and temperature profiles. Chem Cat Chem 2013;5(10):2809–12
doi: 10.1002/cctc.201300401
64   Horn R, Williams K A, Degenstein N J, Schmidt L D. Syngas by catalytic partial oxidation of methane on rhodium: Mechanistic conclusions from spatially resolved measurements and numerical simulations. J Catal 2006;242(1):92–102
doi: 10.1016/j.jcat.2006.05.008
65   Donazzi A, Maestri M, Michael BC, Beretta A, Forzatti P, Groppi G, et al.Microkinetic modeling of spatially resolved autothermal CH4 catalytic partial oxidation experiments over Rh-coated foams. J Catal 2010;275(2):270–9
doi: 10.1016/j.jcat.2010.08.007
66   Mleczko L, Baerns M. Catalytic oxidative coupling of methane—Reaction engineering aspects and process schemes. Fuel Process Technol 1995;42(2–3):217–48
doi: 10.1016/0378-3820(94)00121-9
67   Dautzenberg FM, Schlatter JC, Fox JM, Rostrup-Nielsen JR, Christiansen LJ. Catalyst and reactor requirements for the oxidative coupling of methane. Catal Today 1992;13(4):503–9
doi: 10.1016/0920-5861(92)80071-T
68   Sattler JJ, Gonzalez-Jimenez ID, Luo L, Stears BA, Malek A, Barton DG, et al.Platinum-promoted Ga/Al2O3 as highly active, selective, and stable catalyst for the dehydrogenation of propane. Angew Chem 2014;126(35):9405–10
doi: 10.1002/ange.201404460
69   Ren T, Daniëls B, Patel MK, Blok K. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass: Production costs in 2030–2050. Resour Conserv Recy 2009;53(12):653–63
doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.04.016
70   Naims H. Economics of carbon dioxide capture and utilization—A supply and demand perspective. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016;23(22):22226–41
doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-6810-2
71   Leung DYC, Caramanna G, Maroto-Valer MM. An overview of current status of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2014;39:426–43
doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.093
72   Weikl MC, Schmidt G. Carbon capture in cracking furnaces. In: Proceedings of theAIChE 2010 Spring Meeting and the 6th Global Congress on Process Safety; 2010 Mar 21–25; San Antonio, USA; 2010.
Related
[1] Holger Krueger. Standardization for Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 585 .
[2] Joe A. Sestak Jr.. High School Students from 157 Countries Convene to Address One of the 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering: Access to Clean Water[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 583 -584 .
[3] Lance A. Davis. Climate Agreement—Revisited[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 578 -579 .
[4] Ben A. Wender, M. Granger Morgan, K. John Holmes. Enhancing the Resilience of Electricity Systems[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 580 -582 .
[5] Jin-Xun Liu, Peng Wang, Wayne Xu, Emiel J. M. Hensen. Particle Size and Crystal Phase Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 467 -476 .
[6] Luis Ribeiro e Sousa, Tiago Miranda, Rita Leal e Sousa, Joaquim Tinoco. The Use of Data Mining Techniques in Rockburst Risk Assessment[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 552 -558 .
[7] Maggie Bartolomeo. Third Global Grand Challenges Summit for Engineering[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 434 -435 .
[8] Michael Powalla, Stefan Paetel, Dimitrios Hariskos, Roland Wuerz, Friedrich Kessler, Peter Lechner, Wiltraud Wischmann, Theresa Magorian Friedlmeier. Advances in Cost-Efficient Thin-Film Photovoltaics Based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 445 -451 .
[9] Raffaella Ocone. Reconciling “Micro” and “Macro” through Meso-Science[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 281 -282 .
[10] Baoning Zong, Bin Sun, Shibiao Cheng, Xuhong Mu, Keyong Yang, Junqi Zhao, Xiaoxin Zhang, Wei Wu. Green Production Technology of the Monomer of Nylon-6: Caprolactam[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 379 -384 .
[11] Pengcheng Xu, Yong Jin, Yi Cheng. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 416 -422 .
[12] Lei Xu, Jinhui Peng, Hailong Bai, C. Srinivasakannan, Libo Zhang, Qingtian Wu, Zhaohui Han, Shenghui Guo, Shaohua Ju, Li Yang. Application of Microwave Melting for the Recovery of Tin Powder[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 423 -427 .
[13] Ee Teng Kho, Salina Jantarang, Zhaoke Zheng, Jason Scott, Rose Amal. Harnessing the Beneficial Attributes of Ceria and Titania in a Mixed-Oxide Support for Nickel-Catalyzed Photothermal CO2 Methanation[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 393 -401 .
[14] Ke Dang, Tuo Wang, Chengcheng Li, Jijie Zhang, Shanshan Liu, Jinlong Gong. Improved Oxygen Evolution Kinetics and Surface States Passivation of Ni-Bi Co-Catalyst for a Hematite Photoanode[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 285 -289 .
[15] Mu Xiao, Songcan Wang, Supphasin Thaweesak, Bin Luo, Lianzhou Wang. Tantalum (Oxy)Nitride: Narrow Bandgap Photocatalysts for Solar Hydrogen Generation[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 365 -378 .
Copyright © 2015 Higher Education Press & Engineering Sciences Press, All Rights Reserved.
京ICP备11030251号-2

 Engineering