Please wait a minute...
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Advanced Search
   Home  |  Online Now  |  Current Issue  |  Focus  |  Archive  |  For Authors  |  Journal Information   Open Access  
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (3) : 416 -422
Research |
Thermodynamic Analysis of the Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste
Pengcheng Xu,Yong Jin,Yi Cheng()
Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

This work aims to understand the gasification performance of municipal solid waste (MSW) by means of thermodynamic analysis. Thermodynamic analysis is based on the assumption that the gasification reactions take place at the thermodynamic equilibrium condition, without regard to the reactor and process characteristics. First, model components of MSW including food, green wastes, paper, textiles, rubber, chlorine-free plastic, and polyvinyl chloride were chosen as the feedstock of a steam gasification process, with the steam temperature ranging from 973 K to 2273 K and the steam-to-MSW ratio (STMR) ranging from 1 to 5. It was found that the effect of the STMR on the gasification performance was almost the same as that of the steam temperature. All the differences among the seven types of MSW were caused by the variation of their compositions. Next, the gasification of actual MSW was analyzed using this thermodynamic equilibrium model. It was possible to count the inorganic components of actual MSW as silicon dioxide or aluminum oxide for the purpose of simplification, due to the fact that the inorganic components mainly affected the reactor temperature. A detailed comparison was made of the composition of the gaseous products obtained using steam, hydrogen, and air gasifying agents to provide basic knowledge regarding the appropriate choice of gasifying agent in MSW treatment upon demand.

Keywords Gasification      Waste treatment      Municipal solid waste      Thermodynamic analysis      Gasifying agents     
Corresponding Authors: Yi Cheng   
Just Accepted Date: 11 May 2017   Online First Date: 15 June 2017    Issue Date: 30 June 2017
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Pengcheng Xu
Yong Jin
Yi Cheng
Cite this article:   
Pengcheng Xu,Yong Jin,Yi Cheng. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 416 -422 .
URL:     OR
1   Sakai S, Sawell SE, Chandler AJ, Eighmy TT, Kosson DS, Vehlow J, et al . World trends in municipal solid waste management. Waste Manag 1996;16(5–6):341–50
doi: 10.1016/S0956-053X(96)00106-7
2   Tonjes DJ, Greene KL. A review of national municipal solid waste generation assessments in the USA. Waste Manag Res 2012;30(8):758–71
doi: 10.1177/0734242X12451305
3   United States Environmental Protection Agency. Advancing sustainable materials management: Facts and figures [Internet]. [cited 2016 Nov 2]. Available from:
4   National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China. China statistical year book 2014. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2015.Chinese.
5   El-Fadel M, Findikakis AN, Leckie JO. Environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling. J Environ Manag 1997;50(1):1–25
doi: 10.1006/jema.1995.0131
6   Murphy JD, McKeogh E. Technical, economic and environmental analysis of energy production from municipal solid waste. Renew Energ 2004;29(7):1043–57
doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2003.12.002
7   McKay G. Dioxin characterisation, formation and minimisation during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration: Review. Chem Eng J 2002;86(3):343–68
doi: 10.1016/S1385-8947(01)00228-5
8   Arena U. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review. Waste Manag 2012;32(4):625–39
doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2011.09.025
9   Saxena RC, Seal D, Kumar S, Goyal HB. Thermo-chemical routes for hydrogen rich gas from biomass: A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 2008;12(7):1909–27
doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2007.03.005
10   McKendry P. Energy production from biomass (Part 3): Gasification technologies. Bioresour Technol 2002;83(1):55–63
doi: 10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00120-1
11   Malkow T. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal. Waste Manag 2004;24(1):53–79
doi: 10.1016/S0956-053X(03)00038-2
12   Rapagnà S, Latif A. Steam gasification of almond shells in a fluidised bed reactor: The influence of temperature and particle size on product yield and distribution. Biomass Bioenerg 1997;12(4):281–8
doi: 10.1016/S0961-9534(96)00079-7
13   Rapagnà S, Jand N, Foscolo PU.Catalytic gasification of biomass to produce hydrogen rich gas. Int J Hydrogen Energ 1998;23(7):551–7
doi: 10.1016/S0360-3199(97)00108-0
14   Rapagnà S, Jand N, Kiennemann A, Foscolo PU.Steam-gasification of biomass in a fluidised-bed of olivine particles. Biomass Bioenerg 2000;19(3):187–97
doi: 10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00031-3
15   Di Blasi C, Branca C. Temperatures of wood particles in a hot sand bed fluidized by nitrogen. Energy Fuel 2003;17(1):247–54
doi: 10.1021/ef020146e
16   Umeki K, Yamamoto K, Namioka T, Yoshikawa K. High temperature steam-only gasification of woody biomass. Appl Energ 2010;87(3):791–8
doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.09.035
17   He M, Hu Z, Xiao B, Li J, Guo X, Luo S, et al..Hydrogen-rich gas from catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW): Influence of catalyst and temperature on yield and product composition. Int J Hydrogen Energ 2009;34(1):195–203
doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.09.070
18   He M, Xiao B, Hu Z, Liu S, Guo X, Luo S. Syngas production from catalytic gasification of waste polyethylene: Influence of temperature on gas yield and composition. Int J Hydrogen Energ 2009;34(3):1342–8
doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.12.023
19   He M, Xiao B, Liu S, Guo X, Luo S, Xu Z,et al..Hydrogen-rich gas from catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW): Influence of steam to MSW ratios and weight hourly space velocity on gas production and composition. Int J Hydrogen Energ 2009;34(5):2174–83
doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.11.115
20   Parthasarathy P, Narayanan KS. Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass: Influence of process parameters on hydrogen yield—A review. Renew Energ 2014;66:570–9
doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2013.12.025
21   Mahishi MR, Goswami DY. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasifier for hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energ 2007;32(16):3831–40
doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2007.05.018
22   Puig-Arnavat M, Carlos Bruno J, Coronas A. Modified thermodynamic equilibrium model for biomass gasification: A study of the influence of operating conditions. Energy Fuel 2012;26(2):1385–94
doi: 10.1021/ef2019462
23   Reynolds WC. The element potential method for chemical equilibrium analysis: Implementation in the interactive program STANJAN, version 3. Technical report. Stanford (US): Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University; 1986.
24   Zhou H, Meng A, Long Y, Li Q, Zhang Y. An overview of characteristics of municipal solid waste fuel in China: Physical, chemical composition and heating value. Renew Sust Energ Rev 2014;36:107–22
doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.04.024
25   Lackner M, Palotás AB, Winter F, editors. Combustion: From basics to applications. 1st ed. New Jersey: Wiley-VCH; 2013.
[1] Holger Krueger. Standardization for Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 585 .
[2] Joe A. Sestak Jr.. High School Students from 157 Countries Convene to Address One of the 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering: Access to Clean Water[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 583 -584 .
[3] Lance A. Davis. Climate Agreement—Revisited[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 578 -579 .
[4] Ben A. Wender, M. Granger Morgan, K. John Holmes. Enhancing the Resilience of Electricity Systems[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 580 -582 .
[5] Jin-Xun Liu, Peng Wang, Wayne Xu, Emiel J. M. Hensen. Particle Size and Crystal Phase Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 467 -476 .
[6] Luis Ribeiro e Sousa, Tiago Miranda, Rita Leal e Sousa, Joaquim Tinoco. The Use of Data Mining Techniques in Rockburst Risk Assessment[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 552 -558 .
[7] Maggie Bartolomeo. Third Global Grand Challenges Summit for Engineering[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 434 -435 .
[8] Michael Powalla, Stefan Paetel, Dimitrios Hariskos, Roland Wuerz, Friedrich Kessler, Peter Lechner, Wiltraud Wischmann, Theresa Magorian Friedlmeier. Advances in Cost-Efficient Thin-Film Photovoltaics Based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 445 -451 .
[9] Raffaella Ocone. Reconciling “Micro” and “Macro” through Meso-Science[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 281 -282 .
[10] Baoning Zong, Bin Sun, Shibiao Cheng, Xuhong Mu, Keyong Yang, Junqi Zhao, Xiaoxin Zhang, Wei Wu. Green Production Technology of the Monomer of Nylon-6: Caprolactam[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 379 -384 .
[11] Lei Xu, Jinhui Peng, Hailong Bai, C. Srinivasakannan, Libo Zhang, Qingtian Wu, Zhaohui Han, Shenghui Guo, Shaohua Ju, Li Yang. Application of Microwave Melting for the Recovery of Tin Powder[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 423 -427 .
[12] Ee Teng Kho, Salina Jantarang, Zhaoke Zheng, Jason Scott, Rose Amal. Harnessing the Beneficial Attributes of Ceria and Titania in a Mixed-Oxide Support for Nickel-Catalyzed Photothermal CO2 Methanation[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 393 -401 .
[13] Ke Dang, Tuo Wang, Chengcheng Li, Jijie Zhang, Shanshan Liu, Jinlong Gong. Improved Oxygen Evolution Kinetics and Surface States Passivation of Ni-Bi Co-Catalyst for a Hematite Photoanode[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 285 -289 .
[14] Mu Xiao, Songcan Wang, Supphasin Thaweesak, Bin Luo, Lianzhou Wang. Tantalum (Oxy)Nitride: Narrow Bandgap Photocatalysts for Solar Hydrogen Generation[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 365 -378 .
[15] Spyridon Achinas, Vasileios Achinas, Gerrit Jan Willem Euverink. A Technological Overview of Biogas Production from Biowaste[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 299 -307 .
Copyright © 2015 Higher Education Press & Engineering Sciences Press, All Rights Reserved.