Please wait a minute...
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Advanced Search
   Home  |  Online Now  |  Current Issue  |  Focus  |  Archive  |  For Authors  |  Journal Information   Open Access  
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (4) : 504 -511
Research |
Flow-Induced Instabilities in Pump-Turbines in China
Zhigang Zuo,Shuhong Liu()
State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Engineering, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

The stability of pump-turbines is of great importance to the operation of pumped storage power (PSP) stations. Both hydraulic instabilities and operational instabilities have been reported in PSP stations in China. In order to provide a reference to the engineers and scientists working on pump-turbines, this paper summarizes the hydraulic instabilities and performance characteristics that promote the operational instabilities encountered in pump-turbine operations in China. Definitions, analytical methods, numerical and experimental studies, and main results are clarified. Precautions and countermeasures are also provided based on a literature review. The gaps between present studies and the need for engineering practice are pointed out.

Keywords Pump-turbines      Flow-induced instability      Pressure fluctuations      S-shaped characteristics      Positive slopes     
Corresponding Authors: Shuhong Liu   
Online First Date: 31 August 2017    Issue Date: 13 September 2017
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Zhigang Zuo
Shuhong Liu
Cite this article:   
Zhigang Zuo,Shuhong Liu. Flow-Induced Instabilities in Pump-Turbines in China[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 504 -511 .
URL:     OR
1   Rau NS. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources. Washington, DC: US Department of Energy; 1994 Aug. Report No.: NREL/TP-462-5337 . Contract No.: AC36-83CH10093.
2   Zhang N, Dong HH, He XM. Constructions of pumped storage power stations in China. China Three Gorges 2010;(6):12–5. Chinese.
3   Mei ZY. Technology of pumped storage power generation. Beijing: China Machine Press; 2000. Chinese.
4   Zuo ZG, Liu SH, Sun YK, Wu YL. Pressure fluctuations in the vaneless space of high-head pump-turbines —A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 2015;41:965–74
doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.09.011
5   Egusquiza E, Valero C, Huang XX, Jou E, Guardo A, Rodriguez C. Failure investigation of a large pump-turbine runner. Eng Fail Anal 2012;23:27–34. 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2012.01.012
doi: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2012.01.012.
6   Zuo ZG, Fan HG, Liu SH, Wu YL. S-shaped characteristics on the performance curves of pump-turbines in turbine mode—A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 2016;60:836–51. 10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.312
doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.312.
7   Wu MY. Analysis and comparison of the pump-turbine performance between Guangzhou and Shisanling pumped storage power stations. Dongfang Electr Mach 1995;(3):66–72.Chinese.
8   Liao JK. Solution of excessive vibrations and throws in a pump-turbine. Yunnan Water Power 2007;23(5):91–3,105.Chinese.
9   Wei BZ. Selection of electromechanical devices in Guangzhou pumped storage power stations. Water Power 1993;(7):73–5. Chinese.
10   Wang ZG, Liu JW. Analysis and treatment of abnormal axis and throw of a pumped storage unit. Mech Electr Tech Hydropower Stat 2003;26(3):52–5. Chinese.
11   Xu QF. Synchronization failure analysis for Shisanling pumped storage power station and the solutions. Hydropower Autom Dam Monit 2007;31(3):27–30.Chinese.
12   Wei BZ. Vibration evaluation of pumped-storage generating unit of Guangzhou pumped storage plant (second stage). Hydro Power 2001;(11):48–51.Chinese.
13   Zhong XH. Modifications of the monitoring system of the guide vane openings in Guangzhou pumped storage power station B. Mech Electr Tech Hydropower Stat 2007;30(1):45–7.Chinese.
14   He SR. Analysis of vibration in Tianhuangping I pumped storage power station. Mech Electr Tech Hydropower Stat 1999;(1):1–9.Chinese.
15   Sun JM, Zhu YX, Han ZX. Improvement of no-load stability of No. 1 pump-turbine under the condition of low head area in Tianhuangping pumped-storage power plant. Hydro Power 2001;(6):60–3.Chinese.
16   He SR. The apply of MGV device in Tianhuangping pumped-storage power station. J Hydroelectr Eng 2002;(3):88–100.Chinese.
17   Kong LH. Analysis of abnormal sounds in working condition change-over for high-head pump-turbine. Mech Electr Tech Hydropower Stat 2004;27(6):12–4.Chinese.
18   Le ZC, Kong LH. Cause analysis on rotating part lifting of Unit 2 in Tianhuangping pumped storage plant. Mech Electr Tech Hydropower Stat 2005;28(5):11–3.Chinese.
19   Yan L, Li CJ. Design of the pump-turbine and the auxiliary device in Yixing pumped storage power station. In: Proceedings of the engineering construction of pumped storage power stations (2009). Beijing: China Electric Power Press; 2009. Chinese.
20   Cai J, Zhou XJ, Deng L, Zhang WH. The research of the abnormal water hammer phenomenon based on the Unit 3 over speed test of Jiangsu Yixing pumped storage power station. Hydro Power 2009;35(2):76–9.Chinese.
21   Nennemann B, Parkinson É. Yixing pump turbine guide vane vibrations: Problem resolution with advanced CFD analysis. In: Proceedings of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems; 2010 Sep 20–24; Timişoara, Romania. Bristol: IOP Publishing, Ltd.; 2010. p. 012057
doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012057
22   Hu NN, Dong C. Vibration effect of opening guide vanes desynchronized on pumped storage units. Hydropower Autom Dam Monit 2011;35(6):40–3.Chinese.
23   Tanaka H. Vibration behaviour and dynamic stress of runners of very high head reversible pump-turbines. In: Pejovic S, editor Proceedings of the 15th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Cavitation; 1990 Sep 11–14; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; 1990.
24   Liu JS, Guan RQ. Experimental study of pressure fluctuations in Francis pump turbines. Report. Beijing: Tsinghua University; 1983. Report No.: TH83021. Chinese.
25   Sun YK, Zuo ZG, Liu SH, Wu YL, Liu JT. Numerical simulation of the influence of distributor pitch diameter on performance and pressure fluctuations in a pump-turbine. In: Wu Y, Wang Z, Liu S, Yuan S, Luo X, Wang F, editors IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 15: The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems; 2012 Aug 19–23; Beijing, China. Bristol: IOP Publishing, Ltd.; 2012. p. 072037
doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/15/7/072037
26   Kawamoto K, Niikura K, Satoh J, Harada T, Terasaki A. Reduction of stress amplitude in the runner of ultrahigh head pump turbines. Trans Jpn Soc Mech Eng B 1993;59(558):481–6. Japanese
doi: 10.1299/kikaib.59.481
27   Ran HJ, Luo XW, Zhang Y, Zhuang BT, Xu HY. Numerical simulation of the unsteady flow in a high-head pump turbine and the runner improvemen t. In: Proceedings of ASME 2008 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting Collocated with the Heat Transfer, Energy Sustainability, and 3rd Energy Nanotechnology Conferences; 2008 Aug 10 – 14; Jacksonville, FL , USA. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2008. p. 1115–23
doi: 10.1115/FEDSM2008-55045
28   Greitzer EM. The stability of pumping systems—The 1980 Freeman Scholar lecture. J Fluids Eng 1981;103(2):193–242
doi: 10.1115/1.3241725
29   International Electrotechnical Commission. IEC 60193 Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines—Model acceptance tests. Geneva: International Electrotechnical Commission; 1999.
30   You GH, Kong LH, Liu DY. Pump-turbine S zone & its effect at Tianhuangping pumped storage power plant. J Hydroelectr Eng 2006;25(6):136–9.Chinese.
31   Braun O, Kueny JL, Avellan F. Numerical analysis of flow phenomena related to the unstable energy-discharge characteristic of a pump-turbine in pump mode. In: Proceedings of ASME 2005 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting; 2005 Jun 19–23; Houston, TX, USA. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2005. p. 1075–80
doi: 10.1115/FEDSM2005-77015
32   Kubota T., Kushimoto S. Visual observation of internal flow through high-head pump-turbine. Fuji Electric Rev 1980;26(4):133–44.
33   Stepanik HE, Brekke H. Unsteady flow phenomena in a reversible Francis pump turbine. In: Rohatgi US, editor Fluid Machinery Forum—1990; 1990 Jun 4–7; Toronto, ON, Canada. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 1990. p. 9–14.
34   Eisele K, Muggli F, Zhang Z, Casey M, Sallaberger M, Sebestyen A. Experimental and numerical studies of flow instabilities in pump-turbine stages. In: Brekke H, Duan CG, Fisher RK, Schilling R, Tan SK, Winoto SH, editors Hydraulic machinery and cavitation: Proceedings of the XIX IAHR Symposium; 1998 Sep 9–11; Singapore . Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.; 1998. p. 168–75.
35   Braun O. Part load flow in radial centrifugal pumps [dissertation]. Lausanne: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; 2009.
36   Pacot O. Large scale computation of the rotating stall in a pump-turbine using an overset finite element large eddy simulation numerical code [dissertation]. Lausanne: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; 2014.
37   Pacot O, Kato C, Guo Y, Yamade Y, Avellan F. Large eddy simulation of the rotating stall in a pump-turbine operated in pumping mode at a part-load condition. J Fluids Eng 2016;138(11):111102
doi: 10.1115/1.4033423
38   Yang J, Pavesi G, Yuan S, Cavazzini G, Ardizzon G. Experimental characterization of a pump-turbine in pump mode at hump instability region. J Fluids Eng 2015;137(5):051109
doi: 10.1115/1.4029572
39   Pavesi G, Cavazzini G, Yang J, Ardizzon G. Flow phenomena related to the unstable energy-discharge characteristic of a pump-turbine in pump mode. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-15); 2014 Feb 24–28; Honolulu, HI, USA; 2014.
40   Pavesi G, Yang J, Cavazzini G, Ardizzon G. Experimental analysis of instability phenomena in a high-head reversible pump-turbine at large partial flow condition. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Turbomachinery Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics; 2015 Mar 23–27; Madrid, Spain; 2015. p. ETC2015–060.
41   Pavesi G, Cavazzini G, Ardizzon G. Numerical analysis of the transient behaviour of a variable speed pump-turbine during a pumping power reduction scenario. Energies 2016;9(7):534
doi: 10.3390/en9070534
42   Li W, Pan ZY, Shi WD. Numerical investigation of pump-turbines with different blades at pump conditions. J Adv Manuf Syst 2012;11(2):143–50. 10.1142/S0219686712500138
doi: 10.1142/S0219686712500138.
43   Xia LS, Cheng YG, Zhang XX, Yang JD. Numerical analysis of rotating stall instabilities of a pump-turbine in turbine mode. In: Désy N, Deschênes C, Guibault F, Page M, Turgeon M, Giroux AM, editors IOP conference series: Earth and environmental science, volume 22: The 27th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems; 2014 Sep 22–26; Montreal, QC, Canada. Bristol: IOP Publishing, Ltd.; 2014. p. 032020.
44   Yin JL, Liu JT, Wang LQ, Jiao L, Wu DZ, Qin DQ. Performance prediction and flow analysis in the vaned distributor of a pump turbine under low flow rate in pump mode. Sci China Tech Sci 2010;53(12):3302–9. 10.1007/s11431-010-4175-1
doi: 10.1007/s11431-010-4175-1.
45   Li DY, Wang HJ, Xiang GM, Gong RZ, Wei XZ, Liu ZS. Unsteady simulation and analysis for hump characteristics of a pump turbine model. Renew Energ 2015;77:32–42. 10.1016/j.renene.2014.12.004
doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.12.004.
46   Li DY, Gong RZ, Wang HJ, Wei XZ, Liu ZS, Qin DQ. Numerical investigation on transient flow of a high head low specific speed pump-turbine in pump mode. J Renew Sustain Energy 2015;7(6):063111. 10.1063/1.4936419
doi: 10.1063/1.4936419.
47   Chen SY, Qiu SP, Fang J. Key points in compilations of technical conditions in turbine model tests. East China Eng Techn 2013;34(3):1–4.Chinese.
48   Chen SY, Li CJ, Zhou J, Shen JC, Qiu SP, Zheng YX. Prognosis on the stability of pump-turbine and the countermeasures. Water Power 2011;37(12):50–4.Chinese.
49   Yu JX, Li JW, Chen L, Ren SC, Jiang ML, Li HL. Discussions on main hydraulic performance parameters’ model acceptance test of mixed flow pump turbine. Mech Electr Tech Hydropower Stat 2012;35(6):1–7.Chinese.
50   Qin DQ, Zhang LF. The proposal for the hump safety margin at pump maximum head of pump turbine. Large Electr Mach Hydraul Turb 2006;(4):46–8. Chinese.
51   General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China, Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China. GB/T 22581?2008 Fundamental technical requirements for Francis pump-turbine. Beijing: Standards Press of China; 2009. Chinese.
52   Wang SJ, Hu QJ. Model acceptance test of pump-turbine for the Baoquan pumped storage power station. In: Proceedings of the engineering construction of pumped storage power stations (2006). Beijing: China Electric Power Press; 2006. p. 59–62. Chinese.
53   Li H, Xu JX, Zhao YN. Model acceptance test for the pump turbine of Xiangshuijian pumped storage unit in Lausanne, Switzerland. Large Electr Mach Hydraul Turb 2011;(3):50–3,57. Chinese.
54   Zheng JX, Zhang JZ, Zeng ZX, Zeng WC, Yu JX, Ren SC. Model acceptance test and performance analysis of pump-turbine of Heimifeng pumped-storage power station. Water Power 2010;36(7):63–5. Chinese.
55   Olimstad G, Nielsen T, Børresen B. Dependency on runner geometry for reversible-pump turbine characteristics in turbine mode of operation. J Fluids Eng 2012;134(12):121102
doi: 10.1115/1.4007897
56   Klemm D. Stabilisierung der kennlinien einer pumpenturbine im bereich zwischen turbinen-teillast und rückwärtspumpenbetrieb. Voith Forschung und Konstruktion 1982;28(2):2.1–7. German.
57   Ma MG. Analysis of failure in paralleling operation at low head of a pump-turbine unit and its solution. Electromech Tech Hydropower Stat 2002;(2):37–9. Chinese.
58   Li HB. Application of MGV in pumped storage power plant. Mech Electr Tech Hydropower Stat 2008;31(1):15–6,33. Chinese.
No related articles found!
Copyright © 2015 Higher Education Press & Engineering Sciences Press, All Rights Reserved.
Today's visits ;Accumulated visits . 京ICP备11030251号-2