Please wait a minute...
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Advanced Search
   Home  |  Online Now  |  Current Issue  |  Focus  |  Archive  |  For Authors  |  Journal Information   Open Access  
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Engineering    2017, Vol. 3 Issue (5) : 695 -700
Research |
Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing
Quy Bau Nguyen1(),Mui Ling Sharon Nai1(),Zhiguang Zhu1,Chen-Nan Sun1,Jun Wei1(),Wei Zhou2
1. Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore 637662, Singapore
2. School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore

In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD) for the selective laser melting (SLM) process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g)-1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

Keywords Additive manufacturing      Powder characteristics      Gas atomization      Microstructure      Inconel     
Corresponding Authors: Quy Bau Nguyen,Mui Ling Sharon Nai,Jun Wei   
Just Accepted Date: 21 September 2017   Online First Date: 31 October 2017    Issue Date: 08 November 2017
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Quy Bau Nguyen
Mui Ling Sharon Nai
Zhiguang Zhu
Chen-Nan Sun
Jun Wei
Wei Zhou
Cite this article:   
Quy Bau Nguyen,Mui Ling Sharon Nai,Zhiguang Zhu, et al. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 695 -700 .
URL:     OR
1   Kulawik K, Buffat PA, Kruk A, Wusatowska-Sarnek AM, Czyrska-Filemonowicz A. Imaging and characterization of γ′ and γ″ nanoparticles in Inconel 718 by EDX elemental mapping and FIB–SEM tomography. Mater Charact 2015;100:74–80
doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2014.12.012
2   Chlebus E, Gruber K, Kuźnicka B, Kurzac J, Kurzynowski T. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 718 processed by selective laser melting. Mater Sci Eng A 2015;639:647–55
doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.05.035
3   Lundström E, Simonsson K, Gustafsson D, Månsson T. A load history dependent model for fatigue crack propagation in Inconel 718 under hold time conditions. Eng Fract Mech 2014;118:17–30
doi: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2014.02.005
4   Jia QB, Gu DD. Selective laser melting additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 superalloy parts: Densification, microstructure and properties. J Alloys Compd 2014;585:713–21
doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.09.171
5   Trosch T, Strößner J, Völkl R, Glatzel U. Microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted Inconel 718 compared to forging and casting. Mater Lett 2016;164:428–31
doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2015.10.136
6   Thompson MK, Moroni G, Vaneker T, Fadel G, Campbell RI, Gibson I, et al.Design for additive manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints. CIRP Ann—Manuf Techn 2016;65(2):737–60
doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2016.05.004
7   Sadowski M, Ladani L, Brindley W, Romano J. Optimizing quality of additively manufactured Inconel 718 using powder bed laser melting process. Addit Manuf 2016;11:60–70
doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2016.03.006
8   Herzog D, Seyda V, Wycisk E, Emmelmann C. Additive manufacturing of metals. Acta Mater 2016;117:371–92
doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2016.07.019
9   Helmer H, Bauereiß A, Singer RF, Körner C. Grain structure evolution in Inconel 718 during selective electron beam melting. Mater Sci Eng A 2016;668:180–7
doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.05.046
10   Fox JC, Moylan SP, Lane BM. Effect of process parameters on the surface roughness of overhanging structures in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. Procedia CIRP 2016;45:131–4
doi: 10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.347
11   Strößner J, Terock M, Glatzel U. Mechanical and microstructural investigation of nickel-based superalloy IN718 manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). Adv Eng Mater 2015;17(8):1099–105
doi: 10.1002/adem.201500158
12   Carter LN, Martin C, Withers PJ, Attallah MM. The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy. J Alloys Compd 2014;615:338–47
doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.06.172
13   Appleyard D. Powering up on powder technology. Met Powder Rep 2015;70(6):285–9
doi: 10.1016/j.mprp.2015.08.075
14   Frazier WE. Metal additive manufacturing: A review. J Mater Eng Perform 2014;23(6):1917–28
doi: 10.1007/s11665-014-0958-z
15   Raghavan S, Zhang BC, Wang P, Sun CN, Nai MLS, Li T, et al.Effect of different heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties in selective laser melted INCONEL 718 alloy. Mater Manuf Processes 2017;32(14):1588–95
doi: 10.1080/10426914.2016.1257805
16   Dawes J, Bowerman R, Trepleton R. Introduction to the additive manufacturing powder metallurgy supply chain. Johnson Matthey Technol Rev 2015;59(3):243–56
doi: 10.1595/205651315X688686
17   Spierings AB, Herres N, Levy G. Influence of the particle size distribution on surface quality and mechanical properties in AM steel parts. Rapid Prototyping J 2011;17(3):195–202
doi: 10.1108/13552541111124770
18   Clayton J. Optimising metal powders for additive manufacturing. Met Powder Rep 2014;69(5):14–7
doi: 10.1016/S0026-0657(14)70223-1
19   Freeman R. Measuring the flow properties of consolidated, conditioned and aerated powders—A comparative study using a powder rheometer and a rotational shear cell. Powder Technol 2007;174(1–2):25–33
doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2006.10.016
20   Strondl A, Lyckfeldt O, Brodin H, Ackelid U. Characterization and control of powder properties for additive manufacturing. JOM 2015;67(3):549–54
doi: 10.1007/s11837-015-1304-0
21   Karapatis NP, Egger G, Gygax PE, Glardon R. Optimization of powder layer density in selective laser sintering. In: Proceedings of 10th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium; 1999Aug 9–11; Austin, USA; 1999. p. 255–63.
22   German RM. Particle packing characteristics. New Jersey: Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton; 1989.
[1] Shutian Liu, Quhao Li, Junhuan Liu, Wenjiong Chen, Yongcun Zhang. A Realization Method for Transforming a Topology Optimization Design into Additive Manufacturing Structures[J]. Engineering, 2018, 4(2): 277 -285 .
[2] Pinlian Han. Additive Design and Manufacturing of Jet Engine Parts[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 648 -652 .
[3] Patcharapit Promoppatum, Shi-Chune Yao, P. Chris Pistorius, Anthony D. Rollett. A Comprehensive Comparison of the Analytical and Numerical Prediction of the Thermal History and Solidification Microstructure of Inconel 718 Products Made by Laser Powder-Bed Fusion[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 685 -694 .
[4] Wentao Yan, Ya Qian, Weixin Ma, Bin Zhou, Yongxing Shen, Feng Lin. Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Electron Beam Selective Melting Process[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 701 -707 .
[5] Dongdong Gu, Chenglong Ma, Mujian Xia, Donghua Dai, Qimin Shi. A Multiscale Understanding of the Thermodynamic and Kinetic Mechanisms of Laser Additive Manufacturing[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 675 -684 .
[6] Zhen Zhang, Peng Yan, Guangbo Hao. A Large Range Flexure-Based Servo System Supporting Precision Additive Manufacturing[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 708 -715 .
[7] Amelia Yilin Lee, Jia An, Chee Kai Chua. Two-Way 4D Printing: A Review on the Reversibility of 3D-Printed Shape Memory Materials[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 663 -674 .
[8] Anders Clausen, Niels Aage, Ole Sigmund. Exploiting Additive Manufacturing Infill in Topology Optimization for Improved Buckling Load[J]. Engineering, 2016, 2(2): 250 -257 .
[9] Jun Yang,Yang Yang,Zhizhu He,Bowei Chen,Jing Liu. A Personal Desktop Liquid-Metal Printer as a Pervasive Electronics Manufacturing Tool for Society in the Near Future[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(4): 506 -512 .
[10] Jia An, Joanne Ee Mei Teoh, Ratima Suntornnond, Chee Kai Chua. Design and 3D Printing of Scaffolds and Tissues[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(2): 261 -268 .
[11] Fujio Abe. Research and Development of Heat-Resistant Materials for Advanced USC Power Plants with Steam Temperatures of 700 °C and Above[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(2): 211 -224 .
[12] Chao Guo, Wenjun Ge, Feng Lin. Dual-Material Electron Beam Selective Melting: Hardware Development and Validation Studies[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(1): 124 -130 .
[13] Bingheng Lu, Dichen Li, Xiaoyong Tian. Development Trends in Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(1): 85 -89 .
Copyright © 2015 Higher Education Press & Engineering Sciences Press, All Rights Reserved.