Please wait a minute...
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Advanced Search
   Home  |  Online Now  |  Current Issue  |  Focus  |  Archive  |  For Authors  |  Journal Information   Open Access  
Submit  |   Chinese  | 
Engineering    2015, Vol. 1 Issue (2) : 170 -178
Research |
Progress in Understanding Color Maintenance in Solid-State Lighting Systems
Maryam Yazdan Mehr1,2,Willem Dirk van Driel1,G. Q. (Kouchi) Zhang1,()
1. Delft University of Technology, Delft 2600 AA, the Netherlands
2. Material Innovation Institute (M2i), Delft 2628 XG, the Netherlands

In this paper, progresses of color maintenance, also known as color shift, in solid-state lighting (SSL) systems are thoroughly reviewed. First, color shift is introduced and a few examples are given from different real-life industrial conditions. Different degradation mechanisms in different parts of the system are also explained. Different materials used as lenses/encapsulants in light-emitting diode (LED)-based products are introduced and their contributions to color shift are discussed. Efforts put into standardization, characterizing, and predicting lumen maintenance are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

Keywords light-emitting diode (LED)      color shift      lumen depreciation      lumen degradation     
Corresponding Authors: G. Q. (Kouchi) Zhang   
Just Accepted Date: 30 June 2015   Issue Date: 16 September 2015
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Maryam Yazdan Mehr
Willem Dirk van Driel
G. Q. (Kouchi) Zhang
Cite this article:   
Maryam Yazdan Mehr,Willem Dirk van Driel,G. Q. (Kouchi) Zhang. Progress in Understanding Color Maintenance in Solid-State Lighting Systems[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(2): 170 -178 .
URL:     OR
1   G. R. Jones, A. G. Deakin, J. W. Spencer. Chromatic Monitoring of Complex Conditions. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008
2   D. L. MacAdam. Color Measurement: Theme and Variations. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985
3   K. L. Gordon, R. P. Hafen, J. E. Hathaway, J. J. McCullough. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry, PNNL-21594. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2013.
4   S. Rosenfeld. Lighting art with LEDs at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (brief summary). In: 2011 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop. San Diego, CA, 2014.
5   S. Rosenfeld. Lighting art at the Smithsonian American Art Museum. In: 2013 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop. Long Beach, CA, 2013.
6   M. Royer, R. Tuttle, S. Rosenfeld, N. Miller. Color Maintenance of LEDs in Laboratory and Field Applications, PNNL-22759. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2013.
7   US Department of Energy. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions, PNNL-SA-23984. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2014.
8   US Department of Energy. Solid State Lighting Technology Fact Sheet: LED Color Stability, PNNL-SA-101828. Washington, DC: US Department of Energy, 2014.
9   M. H. Chang, D. Das, P. V. Varde, M. Pecht. Light emitting diodes reliability review. Microelectron. Reliab., 2012, 52(5): 762−782
10   CIE. International commission on illumination. 2015-<month>03</month>-<day>18</day>.
11   N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu. Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency. Phys. Status Solidi A, 2005, 202(6): R60−R62
12   J. J. Licari. Coating Materials for Electronic Applications: Polymers, Processes, Reliability, Testing. New York: William Andrews, Inc., 2003
13   S. Tanabe, S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto. YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED (II): Luminescence characteristics. In: I. T. Ferguson, J. C. Carrano, T. Taguchi, I. E. Ashdown, eds. SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5941: Fifth International Conference on Solid State Lighting. San Diego, CA, USA, 2005: 594112
14   Dow Corning Corporation. Silicone chemistry overview. Midland, MI: Dow Corning Corporation, 1997.
15   D. G. LeGrand, J. T. Bendler. Handbook of Polycarbonate Science and Technology. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2000
16   H. Krimm, H. Schnell, L. Bottenbruch. Thermoplastic aromatic polycarbonates and their manufacture: US, 3028365A. 1962-<month>04</month>-<day>03</day>
17   D. W. Fox. Polycarbonates of dihydroxyaryl ethers: US, 3148172A. 1964-<month>09</month>-<day>08</day>
18   W. D. van Driel, X. J. Fan. Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems. New York: Springer, 2012
19   M. Yazdan Mehr, W. D. van Driel, K. M. B. Jansen, P. Deeben, G. Q. Zhang. Lifetime assessment of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (BPA-PC) plastic lens, used in LED-based products. Microelectron. Reliab., 2014, 54(1): 138−142
20   M. Yazdan Mehr, W. D. van Driel, G. Q. Zhang. Accelerated life time testing and optical degradation of remote phosphor plates. Microelectron. Reliab., 2014, 54(8): 1544−1548
21   M. Yazdan Mehr, W. D. van Driel, S. Koh, G. Q. Zhang. Reliability and optical properties of LED lens plates under high temperature stress. Microelectron. Reliab., 2014, 54(11): 2440−2447
22   M. Yazdan Mehr, W. D. van Driel, H. Udono, G. Q. Zhang. Surface aspects of discolouration in Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as lens in LED-based products. Opt. Mater., 2014, 37: 155−159
23   M. Yazdan Mehr, W. D. van Driel, K. M. B. Jansen, P. Deeben, M. Boutelje, G. Q. Zhang. Photodegradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate under blue light radiation and its effect on optical properties. Opt. Mater., 2013, 35(3): 504−508
24   Solais Lighting, Inc. LED color shift—Causes and management. Stamford: Solais Lighting, Inc., 2014.
25   A. Rivaton. Recent advances in bisphenol-A polycarbonate photodegradation. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 1995, 49(1): 163−179
26   A. Rivaton, D. Sallet, J. Lemaire. The photochemistry of bisphenol-A polycarbonate reconsidered. Polym. Photochem., 1983, 3(6): 463−481
27   J. Lemaire, J. L. Gardette, A. Rivaton, A. Roger. Dual photo-chemistries in aliphatic polyamides, bisphenol A polycarbonate and aromatic polyurethanes—A short review. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 1986, 15(1): 1−13
28   G. Lu, Color shift investigations for LED secondary optical designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA. Opt. Mater., 2015, 45: 37−41
[1] Holger Krueger. Standardization for Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 585 .
[2] Joe A. Sestak Jr.. High School Students from 157 Countries Convene to Address One of the 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering: Access to Clean Water[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 583 -584 .
[3] Lance A. Davis. Climate Agreement—Revisited[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 578 -579 .
[4] Ben A. Wender, M. Granger Morgan, K. John Holmes. Enhancing the Resilience of Electricity Systems[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 580 -582 .
[5] Jin-Xun Liu, Peng Wang, Wayne Xu, Emiel J. M. Hensen. Particle Size and Crystal Phase Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 467 -476 .
[6] Luis Ribeiro e Sousa, Tiago Miranda, Rita Leal e Sousa, Joaquim Tinoco. The Use of Data Mining Techniques in Rockburst Risk Assessment[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 552 -558 .
[7] Maggie Bartolomeo. Third Global Grand Challenges Summit for Engineering[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 434 -435 .
[8] Michael Powalla, Stefan Paetel, Dimitrios Hariskos, Roland Wuerz, Friedrich Kessler, Peter Lechner, Wiltraud Wischmann, Theresa Magorian Friedlmeier. Advances in Cost-Efficient Thin-Film Photovoltaics Based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(4): 445 -451 .
[9] Raffaella Ocone. Reconciling “Micro” and “Macro” through Meso-Science[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 281 -282 .
[10] Baoning Zong, Bin Sun, Shibiao Cheng, Xuhong Mu, Keyong Yang, Junqi Zhao, Xiaoxin Zhang, Wei Wu. Green Production Technology of the Monomer of Nylon-6: Caprolactam[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 379 -384 .
[11] Pengcheng Xu, Yong Jin, Yi Cheng. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 416 -422 .
[12] Lei Xu, Jinhui Peng, Hailong Bai, C. Srinivasakannan, Libo Zhang, Qingtian Wu, Zhaohui Han, Shenghui Guo, Shaohua Ju, Li Yang. Application of Microwave Melting for the Recovery of Tin Powder[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 423 -427 .
[13] Ee Teng Kho, Salina Jantarang, Zhaoke Zheng, Jason Scott, Rose Amal. Harnessing the Beneficial Attributes of Ceria and Titania in a Mixed-Oxide Support for Nickel-Catalyzed Photothermal CO2 Methanation[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 393 -401 .
[14] Ke Dang, Tuo Wang, Chengcheng Li, Jijie Zhang, Shanshan Liu, Jinlong Gong. Improved Oxygen Evolution Kinetics and Surface States Passivation of Ni-Bi Co-Catalyst for a Hematite Photoanode[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 285 -289 .
[15] Mu Xiao, Songcan Wang, Supphasin Thaweesak, Bin Luo, Lianzhou Wang. Tantalum (Oxy)Nitride: Narrow Bandgap Photocatalysts for Solar Hydrogen Generation[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(3): 365 -378 .
Copyright © 2015 Higher Education Press & Engineering Sciences Press, All Rights Reserved.
Today's visits ;Accumulated visits . 京ICP备11030251号-2