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[Online] Additive manufacturing

Guest Editors-in-Chief(2017) 
Lu, Bingheng, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Mazumder, Jyotirmoy, University of Michigan, USA
Executive Associate Editors
Wang, Huaming, Beihang University, China
Li, Lin, The University of Manchester, UK
Brandt, Milan, RMIT University, Australia
Brooks, Geoffrey, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Chiba, Akihiko, Tohoku University, Japan
Duan, Huiling, Peking University, China
Huang, Weidong, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Jiang, Lan, Beijing Institute of Technology, China
Krueger, Holger, Airbus Operations GmbH, Germany
Levine, Lyle E., National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA
Lewandowski, John, Case Western Reserve University, USA
Liu, Wing Kam, Northwestern University, USA
Rollett, Anthony, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Rosen, David, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
Shi, Yusheng, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Sun, Wei, Tsinghua University, China
Tang, Huiping, Northwest Institute for Non-ferrous Metal Research, China
Thampuran, Raj, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore
Zeng, Xiaoyan, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Zhang, Chuck, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
Zhou, Wei, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Guest Editors-in-Chief(2015)
Lu, Bingheng, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Mazumder, Jyotirmoy, University of Michigan, USA

Cheng, Gengdong, Dalian University of Technology, China
Chua, Cheekai, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Coddet, Christian, University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, France
David, Bourell, University of Texas at Austin, USA
Günster, Jens, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany
Lewis, Jannifer, Harvard University, USA
Li, Lin, University of Manchester, UK
Sigmund, Ole, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Sun, Wei, Tsinghua University, China
Zhou, Jack, Drexel University, USA

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A Large Range Flexure-Based Servo System Supporting Precision Additive Manufacturing
Zhen Zhang,Peng Yan,Guangbo Hao
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 708-715.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.020
Abstract   HTML   PDF (3529KB)

This paper presents the design, development, and control of a large range beam flexure-based nano servo system for the micro-stereolithography (MSL) process. As a key enabler of high accuracy in this process, a compact desktop-size beam flexure-based nanopositioner was designed with millimeter range and nanometric motion quality. This beam flexure-based motion system is highly suitable for harsh operation conditions, as no assembly or maintenance is required during the operation. From a mechanism design viewpoint, a mirror-symmetric arrangement and appropriate redundant constraints are crucial to reduce undesired parasitic motion. Detailed finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted and showed satisfactory mechanical features. With the identified dynamic models of the nanopositioner, real-time control strategies were designed and implemented into the monolithically fabricated prototype system, demonstrating the enhanced tracking capability of the MSL process. The servo system has both a millimeter operating range and a root mean square (RMS) tracking error of about 80?nm for a circular trajectory.

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A Multiscale Understanding of the Thermodynamic and Kinetic Mechanisms of Laser Additive Manufacturing
Dongdong Gu,Chenglong Ma,Mujian Xia,Donghua Dai,Qimin Shi
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 675-684.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.011
Abstract   HTML   PDF (5303KB)

Selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing (AM) technology has become an important option for the precise manufacturing of complex-shaped metallic parts with high performance. The SLM AM process involves complicated physicochemical phenomena, thermodynamic behavior, and phase transformation as a high-energy laser beam melts loose powder particles. This paper provides multiscale modeling and coordinated control for the SLM of metallic materials including an aluminum (Al)-based alloy (AlSi10Mg), a nickel (Ni)-based super-alloy (Inconel 718), and ceramic particle-reinforced Al-based and Ni-based composites. The migration and distribution mechanisms of aluminium nitride (AlN) particles in SLM-processed Al-based nanocomposites and the in situ formation of a gradient interface between the reinforcement and the matrix in SLM-processed tungsten carbide (WC)/Inconel 718 composites were studied in the microscale. The laser absorption and melting/densification behaviors of AlSi10Mg and Inconel 718 alloy powder were disclosed in the mesoscale. Finally, the stress development during line-by-line localized laser scanning and the parameter-dependent control methods for the deformation of SLM-processed composites were proposed in the macroscale. Multiscale numerical simulation and experimental verification methods are beneficial in monitoring the complicated powder-laser interaction, heat and mass transfer behavior, and microstructural and mechanical properties development during the SLM AM process.

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Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Electron Beam Selective Melting Process
Wentao Yan,Ya Qian,Weixin Ma,Bin Zhou,Yongxing Shen,Feng Lin
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 701-707.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.021
Abstract   HTML   PDF (3552KB)

Electron beam selective melting (EBSM) is a promising additive manufacturing (AM) technology. The EBSM process consists of three major procedures: ① spreading a powder layer, ② preheating to slightly sinter the powder, and ③ selectively melting the powder bed. The highly transient multi-physics phenomena involved in these procedures pose a significant challenge for in situ experimental observation and measurement. To advance the understanding of the physical mechanisms in each procedure, we leverage high-fidelity modeling and post-process experiments. The models resemble the actual fabrication procedures, including ① a powder-spreading model using the discrete element method (DEM), ② a phase field (PF) model of powder sintering (solid-state sintering), and ③ a powder-melting (liquid-state sintering) model using the finite volume method (FVM). Comprehensive insights into all the major procedures are provided, which have rarely been reported. Preliminary simulation results (including powder particle packing within the powder bed, sintering neck formation between particles, and single-track defects) agree qualitatively with experiments, demonstrating the ability to understand the mechanisms and to guide the design and optimization of the experimental setup and manufacturing process.

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A Comprehensive Comparison of the Analytical and Numerical Prediction of the Thermal History and Solidification Microstructure of Inconel 718 Products Made by Laser Powder-Bed Fusion
Patcharapit Promoppatum,Shi-Chune Yao,P. Chris Pistorius,Anthony D. Rollett
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 685-694.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.023
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2402KB)

The finite-element (FE) model and the Rosenthal equation are used to study the thermal and microstructural phenomena in the laser powder-bed fusion of Inconel 718. A primary aim is to comprehend the advantages and disadvantages of the Rosenthal equation (which provides an analytical alternative to FE analysis), and to investigate the influence of underlying assumptions on estimated results. Various physical characteristics are compared among the FE model, Rosenthal equation, and experiments. The predicted melt pool shapes compared with reported experimental results from the literature show that both the FE model and the analytical (Rosenthal) equation provide a reasonably accurate estimation. At high heat input, under conditions leading to keyholing, the reported melt width is narrower than predicted by the analytical equation. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis based on choices of the absorptivity is performed, which shows that the Rosenthal approach is more sensitive to absorptivity, compared with the FE approach. The primary reason could be the effect of radiative and convective losses, which are assumed to be negligible in the Rosenthal equation. In addition, both methods predict a columnar solidification microstructure, which agrees well with experimental reports, and the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) predicted with the two approaches is comparable with measurements.

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Introduction to the Special Issue on Additive Manufacturing
Editorial Board of Special Issue on Additive Manufacturing
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 576-.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.027
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A Review on the 3D Printing of Functional Structures for Medical Phantoms and Regenerated Tissue and Organ Applications
Kan Wang,Chia-Che Ho,Chuck Zhang,Ben Wang
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 653-662.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.013
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2991KB)

Medical models, or “phantoms,” have been widely used for medical training and for doctor-patient interactions. They are increasingly used for surgical planning, medical computational models, algorithm verification and validation, and medical devices development. Such new applications demand high-fidelity, patient-specific, tissue-mimicking medical phantoms that can not only closely emulate the geometric structures of human organs, but also possess the properties and functions of the organ structure. With the rapid advancement of three-dimensional (3D) printing and 3D bioprinting technologies, many researchers have explored the use of these additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate functional medical phantoms for various applications. This paper reviews the applications of these 3D printing and 3D bioprinting technologies for the fabrication of functional medical phantoms and bio-structures. This review specifically discusses the state of the art along with new developments and trends in 3D printed functional medical phantoms (i.e., tissue-mimicking medical phantoms, radiologically relevant medical phantoms, and physiological medical phantoms) and 3D bio-printed structures (i.e., hybrid scaffolding materials, convertible scaffolds, and integrated sensors) for regenerated tissues and organs.

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Additive Design and Manufacturing of Jet Engine Parts
Pinlian Han
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 648-652.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.017
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2280KB)

The additive design (AD) and additive manufacturing (AM) of jet engine parts will revolutionize the traditional aerospace industry. The unique characteristics of AM, such as gradient materials and micro-structures, have opened up a new direction in jet engine design and manufacturing. Engineers have been liberated from many constraints associated with traditional methodologies and technologies. One of the most significant features of the AM process is that it can ensure the consistency of parts because it starts from point(s), continues to line(s) and layer(s), and ends with the competed part. Collaboration between design and manufacturing is the key to success in fields including aerodynamics, thermodynamics, structural integration, heat transfer, material development, and machining. Engineers must change the way they design a part, as they shift from the traditional method of “subtracting material” to the new method of “adding material” in order to manufacture a part. AD is not the same as designing for AM. A new method and new tools are required to assist with this new way of designing and manufacturing. This paper discusses in detail what is required in AD and AM, and how current problems can be solved.

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Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing
Quy Bau Nguyen,Mui Ling Sharon Nai,Zhiguang Zhu,Chen-Nan Sun,Jun Wei,Wei Zhou
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 695-700.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.012
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2176KB)

In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD) for the selective laser melting (SLM) process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g)-1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

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Two-Way 4D Printing: A Review on the Reversibility of 3D-Printed Shape Memory Materials
Amelia Yilin Lee,Jia An,Chee Kai Chua
Engineering    2017, 3 (5): 663-674.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2017.05.014
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2018KB)

The rapid development of additive manufacturing and advances in shape memory materials have fueled the progress of four-dimensional (4D) printing. With the right external stimulus, the need for human interaction, sensors, and batteries will be eliminated, and by using additive manufacturing, more complex devices and parts can be produced. With the current understanding of shape memory mechanisms and with improved design for additive manufacturing, reversibility in 4D printing has recently been proven to be feasible. Conventional one-way 4D printing requires human interaction in the programming (or shape-setting) phase, but reversible 4D printing, or two-way 4D printing, will fully eliminate the need for human interference, as the programming stage is replaced with another stimulus. This allows reversible 4D printed parts to be fully dependent on external stimuli; parts can also be potentially reused after every recovery, or even used in continuous cycles—an aspect that carries industrial appeal. This paper presents a review on the mechanisms of shape memory materials that have led to 4D printing, current findings regarding 4D printing in alloys and polymers, and their respective limitations. The reversibility of shape memory materials and their feasibility to be fabricated using three-dimensional (3D) printing are summarized and critically analyzed. For reversible 4D printing, the methods of 3D printing, mechanisms used for actuation, and strategies to achieve reversibility are also highlighted. Finally, prospective future research directions in reversible 4D printing are suggested.

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Development Trends in Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing
Bingheng Lu, Dichen Li, Xiaoyong Tian
Engineering    2015, 1 (1): 85-89.   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015012
Abstract   HTML   PDF (241KB)

Additive manufacturing and 3D printing technology have been developing rapidly in the last 30 years, and indicate great potential for future development. The promising future of this technology makes its impact on traditional industry unpredictable. 3D printing will propel the revolution of fabrication modes forward, and bring in a new era for customized fabrication by realizing the five “any”s: use of almost any material to fabricate any part, in any quantity and any location, for any industrial field. Innovations in material, design, and fabrication processes will be inspired by the merging of 3D-printing technology and processes with traditional manufacturing processes. Finally, 3D printing will become as valuable for manufacturing industries as equivalent and subtractive manufacturing processes.

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3D Photo-Fabrication for Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery
Rúben F. Pereira, Paulo J. Bártolo
Engineering    2015, 1 (1): 90-112.   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015015
Abstract   HTML   PDF (13414KB)

The most promising strategies in tissue engineering involve the integration of a triad of biomaterials, living cells, and biologically active molecules to engineer synthetic environments that closely mimic the healing milieu present in human tissues, and that stimulate tissue repair and regeneration. To be clinically effective, these environments must replicate, as closely as possible, the main characteristics of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) on a cellular and subcellular scale. Photo-fabrication techniques have already been used to generate 3D environments with precise architectures and heterogeneous composition, through a multi-layer procedure involving the selective photocrosslinking reaction of a light-sensitive prepolymer. Cells and therapeutic molecules can be included in the initial hydrogel precursor solution, and processed into 3D constructs. Recently, photo-fabrication has also been explored to dynamically modulate hydrogel features in real time, providing enhanced control of cell fate and delivery of bioactive compounds. This paper focuses on the use of 3D photo-fabrication techniques to produce advanced constructs for tissue regeneration and drug delivery applications. State-of-the-art photo-fabrication techniques are described, with emphasis on the operating principles and biofabrication strategies to create spatially controlled patterns of cells and bioactive factors. Considering its fast processing, spatiotemporal control, high resolution, and accuracy, photo-fabrication is assuming a critical role in the design of sophisticated 3D constructs. This technology is capable of providing appropriate environments for tissue regeneration, and regulating the spatiotemporal delivery of therapeutics.

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Additive Manufacture of Ceramics Components by Inkjet Printing
Brian Derby
Engineering    2015, 1 (1): 113-123.   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015014
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2218KB)

In order to build a ceramic component by inkjet printing, the object must be fabricated through the interaction and solidification of drops, typically in the range of 10−100 pL. In order to achieve this goal, stable ceramic inks must be developed. These inks should satisfy specific rheological conditions that can be illustrated within a parameter space defined by the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Printed drops initially deform on impact with a surface by dynamic dissipative processes, but then spread to an equilibrium shape defined by capillarity. We can identify the processes by which these drops interact to form linear features during printing, but there is a poorer level of understanding as to how 2D and 3D structures form. The stability of 2D sheets of ink appears to be possible over a more limited range of process conditions that is seen with the formation of lines. In most cases, the ink solidifies through evaporation and there is a need to control the drying process to eliminate the: “coffee ring” defect. Despite these uncertainties, there have been a large number of reports on the successful use of inkjet printing for the manufacture of small ceramic components from a number of different ceramics. This technique offers good prospects as a future manufacturing technique. This review identifies potential areas for future research to improve our understanding of this manufacturing method.

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Dual-Material Electron Beam Selective Melting: Hardware Development and Validation Studies
Chao Guo, Wenjun Ge, Feng Lin
Engineering    2015, 1 (1): 124-130.   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015013
Abstract   HTML   PDF (9569KB)

Electron beam selective melting (EBSM) is an additive manufacturing technique that directly fabricates three-dimensional parts in a layerwise fashion by using an electron beam to scan and melt metal powder. In recent years, EBSM has been successfully used in the additive manufacturing of a variety of materials. Previous research focused on the EBSM process of a single material. In this study, a novel EBSM process capable of building a gradient structure with dual metal materials was developed, and a powder-supplying method based on vibration was put forward. Two different powders can be supplied individually and then mixed. Two materials were used in this study: Ti6Al4V powder and Ti47Al2Cr2Nb powder. Ti6Al4V has excellent strength and plasticity at room temperature, while Ti47Al2Cr2Nb has excellent performance at high temperature, but is very brittle. A Ti6Al4V/Ti47Al2Cr2Nb gradient material was successfully fabricated by the developed system. The microstructures and chemical compositions were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. Results showed that the interface thickness was about 300 μm. The interface was free of cracks, and the chemical compositions exhibited a staircase-like change within the interface.

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Bioprinting-Based High-Throughput Fabrication of Three-Dimensional MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cellular Spheroids
Kai Ling, Guoyou Huang, Juncong Liu, Xiaohui Zhang, Yufei Ma, Tianjian Lu, Feng Xu
Engineering    2015, 1 (2): 269-274.   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015062
Abstract   HTML   PDF (3266KB)

Cellular spheroids serving as three-dimensional (3D) in vitro tissue models have attracted increasing interest for pathological study and drug-screening applications. Various methods, including microwells in particular, have been developed for engineering cellular spheroids. However, these methods usually suffer from either destructive molding operations or cell loss and non-uniform cell distribution among the wells due to two-step molding and cell seeding. We have developed a facile method that utilizes cell-embedded hydrogel arrays as templates for concave well fabrication and in situ MCF-7 cellular spheroid formation on a chip. A custom-built bioprinting system was applied for the fabrication of sacrificial gelatin arrays and sequentially concave wells in a high-throughput, flexible, and controlled manner. The ability to achieve in situ cell seeding for cellular spheroid construction was demonstrated with the advantage of uniform cell seeding and the potential for programmed fabrication of tissue models on chips. The developed method holds great potential for applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug screening.

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Design and 3D Printing of Scaffolds and Tissues
Jia An, Joanne Ee Mei Teoh, Ratima Suntornnond, Chee Kai Chua
Engineering    2015, 1 (2): 261-268.   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015061
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2059KB)

A growing number of?three-dimensional (3D)-print-ing processes have been applied to tissue engineering. This paper presents a state-of-the-art study of 3D-printing technologies?for tissue-engineering applications, with particular focus on the development of a computer-aided scaffold design system; the direct 3D printing of functionally graded scaffolds; the modeling of selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) processes; the indirect additive manufacturing of scaffolds, with both micro and macro features; the development of a bioreactor; and 3D/4D bioprinting. Technological limitations will be discussed so as to highlight the possibility of future improvements for new 3D-printing methodologies for tissue engineering.

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Exploiting Additive Manufacturing Infill in Topology Optimization for Improved Buckling Load
Anders Clausen, Niels Aage, Ole Sigmund
Engineering    2016, 2 (2): 250-257.   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.02.006
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2383KB)

Additive manufacturing (AM) permits the fabrication of functionally optimized components with high geometrical complexity. The opportunity of using porous infill as an integrated part of the manufacturing process is an example of a unique AM feature. Automated design methods are still incapable of fully exploiting this design freedom. In this work, we show how the so-called coating approach to topology optimization provides a means for designing infill-based components that possess a strongly improved buckling load and, as a result, improved structural stability. The suggested approach thereby addresses an important inadequacy of the standard minimum compliance topology optimization approach, in which buckling is rarely accounted for; rather, a satisfactory buckling load is usually assured through a post-processing step that may lead to sub-optimal components. The present work compares the standard and coating approaches to topology optimization for the MBB beam benchmark case. The optimized structures are additively manufactured using a filamentary technique. This experimental study validates the numerical model used in the coating approach. Depending on the properties of the infill material, the buckling load may be more than four times higher than that of solid structures optimized under the same conditions.

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