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Toward New-Generation Intelligent Manufacturing
Zhou Ji, Li Peigen, Zhou Yanhong, Wang Baicun, Zang Jiyuan, Meng Liu
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 11-20.
Abstract   PDF (1814KB)

Intelligent manufacturing is a general concept that is under continuous development. It can be categorized into three basic paradigms: digital manufacturing, digital-networked manufacturing, and newgeneration intelligent manufacturing. New-generation intelligent manufacturing represents an indepth integration of new-generation artificial intelligence (AI) technology and advanced manufacturing technology. It runs through every link in the full life-cycle of design, production, product, and service. The concept also relates to the optimization and integration of corresponding systems; the continuous improvement of enterprises’ product quality, performance, and service levels; and reduction in resources consumption. New-generation intelligent manufacturing acts as the core driving force of the new industrial revolution and will continue to be the main pathway for the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry in the decades to come. Human-cyber-physical systems (HCPSs) reveal the technological mechanisms of new-generation intelligent manufacturing and can effectively guide related theoretical research and engineering practice. Given the sequential development, cross interaction, and iterative upgrading characteristics of the three basic paradigms of intelligent manufacturing, a technology roadmap for ‘‘parallel promotion and integrated development” should be developed in order to drive forward the intelligent transformation of the manufacturing industry in China.

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Toward Privacy-Preserving Personalized Recommendation Services
Cong Wang, Yifeng Zheng, Jinghua Jiang, Kui Ren
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 21-28.
Abstract   PDF (471KB)

Recommendation systems are crucially important for the delivery of personalized services to users. With personalized recommendation services, users can enjoy a variety of targeted recommendations such as movies, books, ads, restaurants, and more. In addition, personalized recommendation services have become extremely effective revenue drivers for online business. Despite the great benefits, deploying personalized recommendation services typically requires the collection of users’ personal data for processing and analytics, which undesirably makes users susceptible to serious privacy violation issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop practical privacy-preserving techniques to maintain the intelligence of personalized recommendation services while respecting user privacy. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the literature related to personalized recommendation services with privacy protection. We present the general architecture of personalized recommendation systems, the privacy issues therein, and existing works that focus on privacy-preserving personalized recommendation services. We classify the existing works according to their underlying techniques for personalized recommendation and privacy protection, and thoroughly discuss and compare their merits and demerits, especially in terms of privacy and recommendation accuracy. We also identity some future research directions.

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Recent Advances in Passive Digital Image Security Forensics: A Brief Review
Xiang Lin, Jian-Hua Li, Shi-Lin Wang, Alan-Wee-Chung Liew, Feng Cheng, Xiao-Sa Huang
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 29-39.
Abstract   PDF (1424KB)

With the development of sophisticated image editing and manipulation tools, the originality and authenticity of a digital image is usually hard to determine visually. In order to detect digital image forgeries, various kinds of digital image forensics techniques have been proposed in the last decade. Compared with active forensics approaches that require embedding additional information, passive forensics approaches are more popular due to their wider application scenario, and have attracted increasing academic and industrial research interests. Generally speaking, passive digital image forensics detects image forgeries based on the fact that there are certain intrinsic patterns in the original image left during image acquisition or storage, or specific patterns in image forgeries left during the image storage or editing. By analyzing the above patterns, the originality of an image can be authenticated. In this paper, a brief review on passive digital image forensic methods is presented in order to provide a comprehensive introduction on recent advances in this rapidly developing research area. These forensics approaches are divided into three categories based on the various kinds of traces they can be used to track—that is, traces left in image acquisition, traces left in image storage, and traces left in image editing. For each category, the forensics scenario, the underlying rationale, and state-of-the-art methodologies are elaborated. Moreover, the major limitations of the current image forensics approaches are discussed in order to point out some possible research directions or focuses in these areas.

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Social Influence Analysis: Models, Methods, and Evaluation
Kan Li, Lin Zhang, Heyan Huang
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 40-46.
Abstract   PDF (415KB)

Social influence analysis (SIA) is a vast research field that has attracted research interest in many areas. In this paper, we present a survey of representative and state-of-the-art work in models, methods, and evaluation aspects related to SIA. We divide SIA models into two types: microscopic and macroscopic models. Microscopic models consider human interactions and the structure of the influence process, whereas macroscopic models consider the same transmission probability and identical influential power for all users. We analyze social influence methods including influence maximization, influence minimization, flow of influence, and individual influence. In social influence evaluation, influence evaluation metrics are introduced and social influence evaluation models are then analyzed. The objectives of this paper are to provide a comprehensive analysis, aid in understanding social behaviors, provide a theoretical basis for influencing public opinion, and unveil future research directions and potential applications.

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Research on the Construction of a Novel Cyberspace Security Ecosystem
Xiao-Niu Yang, Wei Wang, Xiao-Feng Xu, Guo-Rong Pang, Chun-Lei Zhang
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 47-52.
Abstract   PDF (822KB)

Given the challenges facing the cyberspace of the nation, this paper presents the tripartite theory of cyberspace, based on the status quo of cyberspace. Corresponding strategies and a research architecture are proposed for common public networks (C space), secure classified networks (S space), and key infrastructure networks (K space), based on their individual characteristics. The features and security requirements of these networks are then discussed. Taking C space as an example, we introduce the SMCRC (which stands for “situation awareness, monitoring and management, cooperative defense, response and recovery, and countermeasures and traceback”) loop for constructing a cyberspace security ecosystem. Following a discussion on its characteristics and information exchange, our analysis focuses on the critical technologies of the SMCRC loop. To obtain more insight into national cyberspace security, special attention should be paid to global sensing and precise mapping, continuous detection and active management, cross-domain cooperation and systematic defense, autonomous response and rapid processing, and accurate traceback and countermeasure deterrence.

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A Practical Approach to Constructing a Knowledge Graph for Cybersecurity
Yan Jia, Yulu Qi, Huaijun Shang, Rong Jiang, Aiping Li
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 53-60.
Abstract   PDF (925KB)

Cyberattack forms are complex and varied, and the detection and prediction of dynamic types of attack are always challenging tasks. Research on knowledge graphs is becoming increasingly mature in many fields. At present, it is very significant that certain scholars have combined the concept of the knowledge graph with cybersecurity in order to construct a cybersecurity knowledge base. This paper presents a cybersecurity knowledge base and deduction rules based on a quintuple model. Using machine learning, we extract entities and build ontology to obtain a cybersecurity knowledge base. New rules are then deduced by calculating formulas and using the path-ranking algorithm. The Stanford named entity recognizer (NER) is also used to train an extractor to extract useful information. Experimental results show that the Stanford NER provides many features and the useGazettes parameter may be used to train a recognizer in the cybersecurity domain in preparation for future work.

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A DNA Computing Model for the Graph Vertex Coloring Problem Based on a Probe Graph
Jin Xu, Xiaoli Qiang, Kai Zhang, Cheng Zhang, Jing Yang
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 61-77.
Abstract   PDF (3109KB)

The biggest bottleneck in DNA computing is exponential explosion, in which the DNA molecules used as data in information processing grow exponentially with an increase of problem size. To overcome this bottleneck and improve the processing speed, we propose a DNA computing model to solve the graph vertex coloring problem. The main points of the model are as follows:①The exponential explosion problem is solved by dividing subgraphs, reducing the vertex colors without losing the solutions, and ordering the vertices in subgraphs; and②the bio-operation times are reduced considerably by a designed parallel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology that dramatically improves the processing speed. In this article, a 3-colorable graph with 61 vertices is used to illustrate the capability of the DNA computing model. The experiment showed that not only are all the solutions of the graph found, but also more than 99% of false solutions are deleted when the initial solution space is constructed. The powerful computational capability of the model was based on specific reactions among the large number of nanoscale oligonucleotide strands. All these tiny strands are operated by DNA self-assembly and parallel PCR. After thousands of accurate PCR operations, the solutions were found by recognizing, splicing, and assembling. We also prove that the searching capability of this model is up to O(359). By means of an exhaustive search, it would take more than 896 000 years for an electronic computer (5 1014 s1) to achieve this enormous task. This searching capability is the largest among both the electronic and non-electronic computers that have been developed since the DNA computing model was proposed by Adleman’s research group in 2002 (with a searching capability of O(220)).

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Calculation of the Behavior Utility of a Network System: Conception and Principle
Changzhen Hu
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 78-84.
Abstract   PDF (847KB)

The service and application of a network is a behavioral process that is oriented toward its operations and tasks, whose metrics and evaluation are still somewhat of a rough comparison. This paper describes scenes of network behavior as differential manifolds. Using the homeomorphic transformation of smooth differential manifolds, we provide a mathematical definition of network behavior and propose a mathematical description of the network behavior path and behavior utility. Based on the principle of differential geometry, this paper puts forward the function of network behavior and a calculation method to determine behavior utility, and establishes the calculation principle of network behavior utility. We also provide a calculation framework for assessment of the network’s attack-defense confrontation on the strength of behavior utility. Therefore, this paper establishes a mathematical foundation for the objective measurement and precise evaluation of network behavior.

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SRIM Scheme: An Impression-Management Scheme for Privacy-Aware Photo-Sharing Users
Fenghua Li, Zhe Sun, Ben Niu, Yunchuan Guo, Ziwen Liu
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 85-93.
Abstract   PDF (1445KB)

With the development of online social networks (OSNs) and modern smartphones, sharing photos with friends has become one of the most popular social activities. Since people usually prefer to give others a positive impression, impression management during photo sharing is becoming increasingly important. However, most of the existing privacy-aware solutions have two main drawbacks: ① Users must decide manually whether to share each photo with others or not, in order to build the desired impression; and ② users run a high risk of leaking sensitive relational information in group photos during photo sharing, such as their position as part of a couple, or their sexual identity. In this paper, we propose a social relation impression-management (SRIM) scheme to protect relational privacy and to automatically recommend an appropriate photo-sharing policy to users. To be more specific, we have designed a lightweight face-distance measurement that calculates the distances between users’ faces within group photos by relying on photo metadata and face-detection results. These distances are then transformed into relations using proxemics. Furthermore, we propose a relation impression evaluation algorithm to evaluate and manage relational impressions. We developed a prototype and employed 21 volunteers to verify the functionalities of the SRIM scheme. The evaluation results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed scheme.

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Theories of Social Media: Philosophical Foundations
Jiayin Qi, Emmanuel Monod, Binxing Fang, Shichang Deng
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 94-102.
Abstract   PDF (642KB)

Although many different views of social media coexist in the field of information systems (IS), such theories are usually not introduced in a consistent framework based on philosophical foundations. This paper introduces the dimensions of lifeworld and consideration of others. The concept of lifeworld includes Descartes’ rationality and Heidegger’s historicity, and consideration of others is based on instrumentalism and Heidegger’s ‘‘being-with.” These philosophical foundations elaborate a framework where different archetypal theories applied to social media may be compared: Goffman’s presentation of self, Bourdieu’s social capital, Sartre’s existential project, and Heidegger’s ‘‘shared-world.” While Goffman has become a frequent reference in social media, the three other references are innovative in IS research. The concepts of these four theories of social media are compared with empirical findings in IS literature. While some of these concepts match the empirical findings, some other concepts have not yet been investigated in the use of social media, suggesting future research directions.

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Research on Combined Construction Technology for Cross-Subway Tunnels in Underground Spaces
Xiangsheng Chen
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 103-111.
Abstract   PDF (3241KB)

Given the increasingly notable segmentation of underground space by existing subway tunnels, it is difficult to effectively and adequately develop and utilize underground space in busy parts of a city. This study presents a combined construction technology that has been developed for use in underground spaces; it includes a deformation buffer layer, a special grouting technique, jump excavation by compartment, back-pressure portal frame technology, a reinforcement technique, and the technology of a steel portioning drum or plate. These technologies have been successfully used in practical engineering. The combined construction technology presented in this paper provides a new method of solving key technical problems in underground spaces in effectively used cross-subway tunnels. As this technology has achieved significant economic and social benefits, it has valuable future applications.

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Challenges and Thoughts on Risk Management and Control for the Group Construction of a Super-Long Tunnel by TBM
Mingjiang Deng
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 112-122.
Abstract   PDF (2965KB)

The total length of the second stage of the water supply project in the northern areas of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is 540 km, of which the total length of the tunnels is 516 km. The total tunneling mileage is 569 km, which includes 49 slow-inclined shafts and vertical shafts. Among the tunnels constructed in the project, the Ka–Shuang tunnel, which is a single tunnel with a length of 283 km, is currently the longest water-conveyance tunnel in the world. The main tunnel of the Ka–Shuang tunnel is divided into 18 tunnel-boring machine (TBM) sections, and 34 drilling-and-blasting sections, with 91 tunnel faces. The construction of the Ka–Shuang tunnel has been regarded as an unprecedented challenge for project construction management, risk control, and safe and efficient construction; it has also presented higher requirements for the design, manufacture, operation, and maintenance of the TBMs and their supporting equipment. Based on the engineering characteristics and adverse geological conditions, it is necessary to analyze the major problems confronted by the construction and systematically locate disaster sources. In addition, the risk level should be reasonably ranked, responsibility should be clearly identified, and a hierarchical-control mechanism should be established. Several techniques are put forward in this paper to achieve the objectives mentioned above; these include advanced geological prospecting techniques, intelligent tunneling techniques combined with the sensing and fusion of information about rock parameters and mechanical parameters, monitoring and early-warning techniques, and modern information technologies. The application of these techniques offers scientific guidance for risk control and puts forward technical ideas about improving the efficiency of safe tunneling. These techniques and ideas have great significance for the development of modern tunneling technologies and research into major construction equipment.

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Conception and Exploration of Using Data as a Service in Tunnel Construction with the NATM
Bowen Du, Yanliang Du, Fei Xu, Peng He
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 123-130.
Abstract   PDF (3251KB)

The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) has been widely used in the construction of mountain tunnels, urban metro lines, underground storage tanks, underground power houses, mining roadways, and so on. The variation patterns of advance geological prediction data, stress–strain data of supporting structures, and deformation data of the surrounding rock are vitally important in assessing the rationality and reliability of construction schemes, and provide essential information to ensure the safety and scheduling of tunnel construction. However, as the quantity of these data increases significantly, the uncertainty and discreteness of the mass data make it extremely difficult to produce a reasonable construction scheme; they also reduce the forecast accuracy of accidents and dangerous situations, creating huge challenges in tunnel construction safety. In order to solve this problem, a novel data service system is proposed that uses data-association technology and the NATM, with the support of a big data environment. This system can integrate data resources from distributed monitoring sensors during the construction process, and then identify associations and build relations among data resources under the same construction conditions. These data associations and relations are then stored in a data pool. With the development and supplementation of the data pool, similar relations can then be used under similar conditions, in order to provide data references for construction schematic designs and resource allocation. The proposed data service system also provides valuable guidance for the construction of similar projects

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The Practice of Forward Prospecting of Adverse Geology Applied to Hard Rock TBM Tunnel Construction: The Case of the Songhua River Water Conveyance Project in the Middle of Jilin Province
Shucai Li, Lichao Nie, Bin Liu
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 131-137.
Abstract   PDF (2158KB)

An increasing number of tunnels are being constructed with tunnel-boring machines (TBMs) due to the increased efficiency and shorter completion time resulting from their use. However, when a TBM encounters adverse geological conditions in the course of tunnel construction (e.g., karst caves, faults, or fractured zones), disasters such as water and mud inrush, collapse, or machine blockage may result, and may severely imperil construction safety. Therefore, the advance detection of adverse geology and water-bearing conditions in front of the tunnel face is of great importance. This paper uses the TBM tunneling of the water conveyance project from Songhua River as a case study in order to propose a comprehensive forward geological prospecting technical system that is suitable for TBM tunnel construction under complicated geological conditions. By combining geological analysis with forward geological prospecting using a three-dimensional (3D) induced polarization method and a 3D seismic method, a comprehensive forward geological prospecting technical system can accurately forecast water inrush geo-hazards or faults in front of the TBM tunnel face. In this way, disasters such as water and mud inrush, collapse, or machine blockage can be avoided. This prospecting technical system also has reference value for carrying out the forward prospecting of adverse geology for potential TBM tunneling and for ensuring that a TBM can work efficiently.

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Island Megalopolises: Tunnel Systems as a Critical Alternative in Solving Transport Problems
Vladimir V. Makarov
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 138-142.
Abstract   PDF (935KB)

A principal difficulty with island megalopolises is the transport problem, which results from limited surface land on an already developed island, on which roads and car parking can be placed. This limitation leads to traffic jams on the small number of roads and to intrusive car parking in any available surface location, resulting in safety issues. The city of Vladivostok is located on the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula in the Russia Far East region (the Primorsky Krai). This city is essentially the third capital of Russia because of its important geopolitical location. To address the car traffic problems in Vladivostok, and because of the absence of places to build new roads, the city administration has proposed the usage of the beaches and waterfronts along the sea coast in this regard. This decision is in sharp conflict with Vladivostok’s ecological and social aspirations to be recognized as a world-class city. It also neglects the lessons that have been learned in many other waterfront cities around the world, as such cities have first built aboveground waterfront highways and later decided to remove them at great expense, in order to allow their citizens to properly enjoy the environmental and historical assets of their waterfronts. A key alternative would be to create an independent tunneled transport system along with added underground parking so that the transport problems can be addressed in a manner that enhances the ecology and livability of the city. A comparison of the two alternatives for solving the transport problem, that is, underground versus aboveground, shows the significant advantages of the independent tunnel system. Complex efficiency criteria have been developed in order to quantify the estimation of the alternative variants of the Vladivostok transport system. It was determined that the underground project is almost 1.8 times more advantageous than the aboveground alternative.

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Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Arch Bridges in China
Jielian Zheng, Jianjun Wang
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 143-155.
Abstract   PDF (3823KB)

In the past 20 years, great progress has been achieved in China in the construction of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton. The span of these bridges has been increasing rapidly, which is rare in the history of bridge development. The large-scale construction of expressways and high-speed railways demands the development of long-span arch bridges, and advances in design and construction techniques have made it possible to construct such bridges. In the present study, the current status, development, and major innovative technologies of CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton in China are elaborated. This paper covers the key construction technologies of CFST arch bridges, such as the design, manufacture, and installation of steel tube arch trusses, the preparation and pouring of in-tube concrete, and the construction of the world’s longest CFST arch bridge—the First Hejiang Yangtze River Bridge. The main construction technologies of reinforced concrete arch bridges are also presented, which include cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, adjusting the load by means of stay cables, surrounding the concrete for arch rib pouring, and so forth. In addition, the construction of two CFST skeleton concrete arch bridges—the Guangxi Yongning Yong River Bridge and the Yunnan–Guangxi Railway Nanpan River Bridge—is discussed. CFST arch bridges in China have already gained a world-leading position; with the continuous innovation of key technologies, China will become the new leader in promoting the development of arch bridges.

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Mapping Sea Level Rise Behavior in an Estuarine Delta System: A Case Study along the Shanghai Coast
H.Q. Cheng, J.Y. Chen, Z.J. Chen, R.L. Ruan, G.Q. Xu, G. Zeng, J.R. Zhu, Z.J. Dai, X.Y. Chen, S.H. Gu, X.L. Zhang, H.M. Wang
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 156-163.
Abstract   PDF (3616KB)

Sea level rise (SLR) is a major projected threat of climate change that is expected to affect developing coastal cities located in estuarine delta regions. Shanghai is one such city, being located in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). It is difficult, however, for decision-makers to implement adaptation due to the uncertain causes, magnitudes, and timings of SLR behaviors. This paper attempts to map the causes and magnitudes of SLR behaviors on a decadal scale. We analyze the tidal level records from 11 tidal gauge stations and the corresponding bathymetry measurements around these stations since 1921. We identify three new SLR behaviors along the Shanghai coast due to anthropogenic geomorphologic changes (AGCs), besides the well-known eustatic sea level rise (ESLR), tectonic subsidence (TS), and urban land subsidence (ULS). The first new behavior is regional sea level rise (RSLR), which occurs as a result of land reclamation and deep waterway regulation. The second is regional sea level fall (RSLF), which occurs because the channel bed is eroded due to sediment supply decline in the river catchment. The last SLR behavior is local tidal datum rise (LTDR). Thus, we project that the magnitude of SLR for the Shanghai coast ranges from 10 cm to 16 cm from 2011 to 2030. Clarifying SLR behaviors is important to aid local decisionmakers in planning structural and non-structural measures to combat escalating flood damage costs in an estuarine delta system; this field is full of future challenges.

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Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China
Shunquan Qin, Zongyu Gao
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 787-794.
Abstract   PDF (3022KB)

With the rapid developments of the high-speed railway in China, a great number of long-span bridges have been constructed in order to cross rivers and gorges. At present, the longest main span of a constructed high-speed railway bridge is only 630 m. The main span of Hutong Yangtze River Bridge and of Wufengshan Yangtze River Bridge, which are under construction, will be much longer, at 1092 m each. In order to overcome the technical issues that originate from the extremely large dead loading and the relatively small structural stiffness of long-span high-speed railway bridges, many new technologies in bridge construction, design, materials, and so forth have been developed. This paper carefully reviews progress in the construction technologies of multi-function combined bridges in China, including combined highway and railway bridges and multi-track railway bridges. Innovations and practices regarding new types of bridge and composite bridge structures, such as bridges with three cable planes and three main trusses, inclined main trusses, slab-truss composite sections, and steel-concrete composite sections, are introduced. In addition, investigations into high-performance materials and integral fabrication and erection techniques for long-span railway bridges are summarized. At the end of the paper, prospects for the future development of long-span high-speed railway bridges are provided.

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Fatigue Strength Evaluation of Resin-Injected Bolted Connections Using Statistical Analysis
José António Fonseca de Oliveira Correia, Bruno Alexandre Silva Pedrosa, Patrícia Cordeiro Raposo, Abílio Manuel Pinho De Jesus, Helena Maria dos Santos Gervásio, Grzegorz Stanisław Lesiuk, Carlos Alberto da Silva Rebelo, Rui Artur Bartólo Calçada, Luís Alberto Proença Simões da Silva
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 795-805.
Abstract   PDF (2919KB)

Different strategies can be used to perform reparations and reinforcements of ancient bolted and riveted metallic bridges. As the riveting process is not currently a common practice, it requires proper equipment and skilled workers. Another solution is the use of welding. However, the weldability of old steels is poor. Bolts are very attractive alternative solutions, and are most commonly used to repair old metallic bridges. Fitted bolts are expensive solutions; the alternative is the use of resin-injected bolts. The behavior of bolted joints with preloaded resin-injected bolts has been studied using quasi-static and creep tests; however, few studies on the slip and fatigue behavior of these joints can be found in the literature. This paper presents an overview of a few experimental programs that were carried out by several authors aiming at evaluating the fatigue behavior of single and double shear resin-injected bolted connections. A comparison between the experimental data of joints with preloaded standard bolts and preloaded resininjected bolts shows a fatigue strength reduction in the latter. Since Eurocode 3 (EC3) suggests the same fatigue strength curve for joints made of resin-injected bolts and standard bolts, this may raise some concerns. Furthermore, research on the feasibility of using both bonded and bolted connections is shown. This last study was performed with high-strength low-alloy structural steel plates and an acrylic structural adhesive for metal bonding. For both case studies, a statistical analysis is performed on fatigue experimental data using linearized boundaries and the Castillo and Fernández-Canteli model. Fatigue design curves are proposed and compared with the design suggestions of several European and North American standards.

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Mechanical Behavior of a Partially Encased Composite Girder with Corrugated Steel Web: Interaction of Shear and Bending
Jun He, Sihao Wang, Yuqing Liu, Zhan Lyu, Chuanxi Li
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 806-816.
Abstract   PDF (2740KB)

The synergistic use of partially encased concrete and composite girders with corrugated steel webs (CGCSWs) has been proposed to avoid the buckling of corrugated steel webs and compression steel flanges under large combined shear force and bending moment in the hogging area. First, model tests were carried out on two specimens with different shear spans to investigate the mechanical behavior, including the load-carrying capacity, failure modes, flexural and shear stress distribution, and development of concrete cracking. Experimental results show that the interaction of shear force and bending moment causes the failure of specimens. The bending-to-shear ratio does not affect the shear stiffness of a composite girder in the elastic stage when concrete cracking does not exist, but significantly influences the shear stiffness after concrete cracking. In addition, composite sections in the elastic stage satisfy the assumption of the plane section under combined shear force and bending moment. However, after concrete cracking in the tension field, the normal stresses of a corrugated web in the tension area become small due to the ‘‘accordion effect,” with almost zero stress at the flat panels but recognizable stress at the inclined panels. Second, three-dimensional finite-element (FE) models considering material and geometric nonlinearity were built and validated by experiments, and parametric analyses were conducted on composite girders with different lengths and heights to determine their load-carrying capacity when subjected to combined loads. Finally, an interaction formula with respect to shear and flexural strength is offered on the basis of experimental and numerical results in order to evaluate the loadcarrying capacity of such composite structures, thereby providing a reference for the design of partially encased composite girders with corrugated steel webs (PECGCSWs) under combined flexural and shear loads.

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Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Aerodynamic Performance of Surface-Modification Cables
Hiroshi Katsuchi, Hitoshi Yamada, Ippei Sakaki, Eiichi Okado
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 817-822.
Abstract   PDF (2900KB)

The wind-induced vibration of stay cables of cable-stayed bridges, which includes rain-wind-induced vibration (RWIV) and dry galloping (DG), has been studied for a considerable amount of time. In general, mechanical dampers or surface modification are applied to suppress the vibration. In particular, several types of surface-modification cable, including indentation, longitudinally parallel protuberance, helical fillet, and U-shaped grooving, have been developed. Recently, a new type of aerodynamically stable cable with spiral protuberances was developed. It was confirmed that the cable has a low drag force coefficient, like an indented cable, and that it prevented the formation of water rivulets on the cable surface. In this study, the stability for RWIV of this cable was investigated with various flow angles and protuberance dimensions in a wind-tunnel test. It was found that the spiral protuberance cable is aerodynamically stable against both RWIV and DG for all test wind angles. The effects of the protuberance dimensions were also clarified.

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A Comparative Assessment of Aerodynamic Models for Buffeting and Flutter of Long-Span Bridges
Igor Kavrakov, Guido Morgenthal
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 823-838.
Abstract   PDF (4590KB)

Wind-induced vibrations commonly represent the leading criterion in the design of long-span bridges. The aerodynamic forces in bridge aerodynamics are mainly based on the quasi-steady and linear unsteady theory. This paper aims to investigate different formulations of self-excited and buffeting forces in the time domain by comparing the dynamic response of a multi-span cable-stayed bridge during the critical erection condition. The bridge is selected to represent a typical reference object with a bluff concrete box girder for large river crossings. The models are viewed from a perspective of model complexity, comparing the influence of the aerodynamic properties implied in the aerodynamic models, such as aerodynamic damping and stiffness, fluid memory in the buffeting and self-excited forces, aerodynamic nonlinearity, and aerodynamic coupling on the bridge response. The selected models are studied for a windspeed range that is typical for the construction stage for two levels of turbulence intensity. Furthermore, a simplified method for the computation of buffeting forces including the aerodynamic admittance is presented, in which rational approximation is avoided. The critical flutter velocities are also compared for the selected models under laminar flow.

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Damping Identification of Bridges Under Nonstationary Ambient Vibration
Sunjoong Kim, Ho-Kyung Kim
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 839-844.
Abstract   PDF (1623KB)

This research focuses on identifying the damping ratio of bridges using nonstationary ambient vibration data. The damping ratios of bridges in service have generally been identified using operational modal analysis (OMA) based on a stationary white noise assumption for input signals. However, most bridges are generally subjected to nonstationary excitations while in service, and this violation of the basic assumption can lead to uncertainties in damping identification. To deal with nonstationarity, an amplitude-modulating function was calculated from measured responses to eliminate global trends caused by nonstationary input. A natural excitation technique (NExT)-eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) was applied to estimate the damping ratio for a stationarized process. To improve the accuracy of OMA-based damping estimates, a comparative analysis was performed between an extracted stationary process and nonstationary data to assess the effect of eliminating nonstationarity. The mean value and standard deviation of the damping ratio for the first vertical mode decreased after signal stationarization.

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Investigation of Turbulence Effects on the Aeroelastic Properties of a Truss Bridge Deck Section
Hoang Trong Lam, Hiroshi Katsuchi, Hitoshi Yamada
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 845-853.
Abstract   PDF (1879KB)

This paper presents the flutter derivatives (FDs) extracted from a stochastic system identification (SSI) method under different turbulent flows. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of oncoming turbulence on the flutter of suspended long-span bridges using a section model wind-tunnel test. Several wind-tunnel tests were performed on a truss bridge deck section with different oncoming turbulent properties involving reduced turbulence intensities and turbulent scales. This study includes an investigation of the effect of oncoming flows on modal dynamic responses. The transient and buffeting response data from the wind-tunnel test are analyzed using the system identification technique in extracting FDs, and the difficulties involved in this method are discussed. The time-domain SSI is applied to extract all FDs simultaneously from one and two degree-of-freedom (1DOF and 2DOF) systems. Finally, the results under different conditions are discussed and conclusions are formed.

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A Simplified Nonlinear Model of Vertical Vortex-Induced Force on Box Decks for Predicting Stable Amplitudes of Vortex-Induced Vibrations
Le-Dong Zhu, Xiao-Liang Meng, Lin-Qing Du, Ming-Chang Ding
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 854-862.
Abstract   PDF (3012KB)

Wind-tunnel tests of a large-scale sectional model with synchronous measurements of force and vibration responses were carried out to investigate the nonlinear behaviors of vertical vortex-induced forces (VIFs) on three typical box decks (i.e., fully closed box, centrally slotted box, and semi-closed box). The mechanisms of the onset, development, and self-limiting phenomenon of the vertical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) were also explored by analyzing the energy evolution of different vertical VIF components and their contributions to the vertical VIV responses. The results show that the nonlinear components of the vertical VIF often differ from deck to deck; the most important components of the vertical VIF, governing the stable amplitudes of the vertical VIV responses, are the linear and cubic components of velocity contained in the self-excited aerodynamic damping forces. The former provides a constant negative damping ratio to the vibration system and is thus the essential power driving the development of the VIV amplitude, while the latter provides a positive damping ratio proportional to the square of the vibration velocity and is actually the inherent factor making the VIV amplitude self-limiting. On these bases, a universal simplified nonlinear mathematical model of the vertical VIF on box decks of bridges is presented and verified in this paper; it can be used to predict the stable amplitudes of the vertical VIV of long-span bridges with satisfactory accuracy.

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Mechanized Tunneling in Soft Soils: Choice of Excavation Mode and Application of Soil-Conditioning Additives in Glacial Deposits
Rolf Zumsteg, Lars Langmaack
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 863-870.
Abstract   PDF (2232KB)

The history of the formation of the alpine region is affected by the activities of the glaciers, which have a strong influence on underground works in this area. Mechanized tunneling must adapt to the presence of sound and altered rock, as well as to inhomogeneous soil layers that range from permeable gravel to soft clay sediments along the same tunnel. This article focuses on past experiences with tunnel-boring machines (TBMs) in Switzerland, and specifically on the aspects of soil conditioning during a passage through inhomogeneous soft soils. Most tunnels in the past were drilled using the slurry mode (SM), in which the application of different additives was mainly limited to difficult zones of high permeability and stoppages for tool change and modification. For drillings with the less common earth pressure balanced mode (EPBM), continuous foam conditioning and the additional use of polymer and bentonite have proven to be successful. The use of conditioning additives led to new challenges during separation of the slurries (for SM) and disposal of the excavated soil (for EPBM). If the disposal of chemically treated soft soil material from the earth pressure balanced (EPB) drive in a manner that is compliant with environmental legislation is considered early on in the design and evaluation of the excavation mode, the EPBM can be beneficial for tunnels bored in glacial deposits.

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Typical Underwater Tunnels in the Mainland of China and Related Tunneling Technologies
Kairong Hong
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 871-879.
Abstract   PDF (4415KB)

In the past decades, many underwater tunnels have been constructed in the mainland of China, and great progress has been made in related tunneling technologies. This paper presents the history and state of the art of underwater tunnels in the mainland of China in terms of shield-bored tunnels, drill-and-blast tunnels, and immersed tunnels. Typical underwater tunnels of these types in the mainland of China are described, along with innovative technologies regarding comprehensive geological prediction, grouting-based consolidation, the design and construction of large cross-sectional tunnels with shallow cover in weak strata, cutting tool replacement under limited drainage and reduced pressure conditions, the detection and treatment of boulders, the construction of underwater tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity, and the treatment of serious sedimentation in a foundation channel of immersed tunnels. Some suggestions are made regarding the three potential great strait-crossing tunnels—the Qiongzhou Strait-Crossing Tunnel, Bohai Strait-Crossing Tunnel, and Taiwan Strait-Crossing Tunnel—and issues related to these great strait-crossing tunnels that need further study are proposed.

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Lake Mead Intake No. 3
Jon Hurt, Claudio Cimiotti
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 880-887.
Abstract   PDF (1872KB)

As a result of a sustained drought in the Southwestern United States, and in order to maintain existing water capacity in the Las Vegas Valley, the Southern Nevada Water Authority constructed a new deepwater intake (Intake No. 3) located in Lake Mead. The project included a 185 m deep shaft, 4.7 km tunnel under very difficult geological conditions, and marine works for a submerged intake. This paper presents the experience that was gained during the design and construction and the innovative solutions that were developed to handle the difficult conditions that were encountered during tunneling with a dualmode slurry tunnel-boring machine (TBM) in up to 15 bar (1 bar= 105 Pa) pressure. Specific attention is given to the main challenges that were overcome during the TBM excavation, which included the mode of operation, face support pressures, pre-excavation grouting, and maintenance; to the construction of the intake, which involved deep underwater shaft excavation with blasting using shaped charges; to the construction of the innovative over 1200 t concrete-and-steel intake structure; to the placement of the intake structure in the underwater shaft; and to the docking and connection to an intake tunnel excavated by hybrid TBM.

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Universal Method for the Prediction of Abrasive Waterjet Performance in Mining
Eugene Averin
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 888-891.
Abstract   PDF (281KB)

Abrasive waterjets (AWJs) can be used in extreme mining conditions for hard rock destruction, due to their ability to effectively cut difficult-to-machine materials with an absence of dust formation. They can also be used for explosion, intrinsic, and fire safety. Every destructible material can be considered as either ductile or brittle in terms of its fracture mechanics. Thus, there is a need for a method to predict the efficiency of cutting with AWJs that is highly accurate irrespective of material. This problem can be solved using the energy conservation approach, which states the proportionality between the material removal volume and the kinetic energy of AWJs. This paper describes a method based on this approach, along with recommendations on reaching the most effective level of destruction. Recommendations are provided regarding rational ranges of values for the relation of abrasive flow rate to water flow rate, standoff distance, and size of abrasive particles. I also provide a parameter to establish the threshold conditions for a material’s destruction initiation based on the temporary-structural approach of fracture mechanics.

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