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Toward New-Generation Intelligent Manufacturing
Zhou Ji, Li Peigen, Zhou Yanhong, Wang Baicun, Zang Jiyuan, Meng Liu
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 11-20.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.01.002
Abstract   PDF (1814KB)

Intelligent manufacturing is a general concept that is under continuous development. It can be categorized into three basic paradigms: digital manufacturing, digital-networked manufacturing, and newgeneration intelligent manufacturing. New-generation intelligent manufacturing represents an indepth integration of new-generation artificial intelligence (AI) technology and advanced manufacturing technology. It runs through every link in the full life-cycle of design, production, product, and service. The concept also relates to the optimization and integration of corresponding systems; the continuous improvement of enterprises’ product quality, performance, and service levels; and reduction in resources consumption. New-generation intelligent manufacturing acts as the core driving force of the new industrial revolution and will continue to be the main pathway for the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry in the decades to come. Human-cyber-physical systems (HCPSs) reveal the technological mechanisms of new-generation intelligent manufacturing and can effectively guide related theoretical research and engineering practice. Given the sequential development, cross interaction, and iterative upgrading characteristics of the three basic paradigms of intelligent manufacturing, a technology roadmap for ‘‘parallel promotion and integrated development” should be developed in order to drive forward the intelligent transformation of the manufacturing industry in China.

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The Longest Railway Tunnel in China
Haibo Zhang, Changyu Yang
Engineering    2018, 4 (2): 165-166.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.03.011
Abstract   PDF (692KB)
 
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The New Frontiers of Cybersecurity
Binxing Fang, Kui Ren, Yan Jia
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 1-2.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.02.007
Abstract   PDF (425KB)
 
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The Statics, Dynamics, and Aerodynamics of Long-Span Bridges
Yeong-Bin Yang, Yaojun Ge
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 779-.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.12.005
Abstract   PDF (300KB)
 
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The Smart Road: Practice and Concept
Lijun Sun, Hongduo Zhao, Huizhao Tu, Yu Tian
Engineering    2018, 4 (4): 436-437.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.07.014
Abstract   PDF (238KB)
 
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Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China
Shunquan Qin, Zongyu Gao
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 787-794.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.11.001
Abstract   PDF (3022KB)

With the rapid developments of the high-speed railway in China, a great number of long-span bridges have been constructed in order to cross rivers and gorges. At present, the longest main span of a constructed high-speed railway bridge is only 630 m. The main span of Hutong Yangtze River Bridge and of Wufengshan Yangtze River Bridge, which are under construction, will be much longer, at 1092 m each. In order to overcome the technical issues that originate from the extremely large dead loading and the relatively small structural stiffness of long-span high-speed railway bridges, many new technologies in bridge construction, design, materials, and so forth have been developed. This paper carefully reviews progress in the construction technologies of multi-function combined bridges in China, including combined highway and railway bridges and multi-track railway bridges. Innovations and practices regarding new types of bridge and composite bridge structures, such as bridges with three cable planes and three main trusses, inclined main trusses, slab-truss composite sections, and steel-concrete composite sections, are introduced. In addition, investigations into high-performance materials and integral fabrication and erection techniques for long-span railway bridges are summarized. At the end of the paper, prospects for the future development of long-span high-speed railway bridges are provided.

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A Practical Approach to Constructing a Knowledge Graph for Cybersecurity
Yan Jia, Yulu Qi, Huaijun Shang, Rong Jiang, Aiping Li
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 53-60.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.01.004
Abstract   PDF (925KB)

Cyberattack forms are complex and varied, and the detection and prediction of dynamic types of attack are always challenging tasks. Research on knowledge graphs is becoming increasingly mature in many fields. At present, it is very significant that certain scholars have combined the concept of the knowledge graph with cybersecurity in order to construct a cybersecurity knowledge base. This paper presents a cybersecurity knowledge base and deduction rules based on a quintuple model. Using machine learning, we extract entities and build ontology to obtain a cybersecurity knowledge base. New rules are then deduced by calculating formulas and using the path-ranking algorithm. The Stanford named entity recognizer (NER) is also used to train an extractor to extract useful information. Experimental results show that the Stanford NER provides many features and the useGazettes parameter may be used to train a recognizer in the cybersecurity domain in preparation for future work.

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Typical Underwater Tunnels in the Mainland of China and Related Tunneling Technologies
Kairong Hong
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 871-879.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.12.007
Abstract   PDF (4415KB)

In the past decades, many underwater tunnels have been constructed in the mainland of China, and great progress has been made in related tunneling technologies. This paper presents the history and state of the art of underwater tunnels in the mainland of China in terms of shield-bored tunnels, drill-and-blast tunnels, and immersed tunnels. Typical underwater tunnels of these types in the mainland of China are described, along with innovative technologies regarding comprehensive geological prediction, grouting-based consolidation, the design and construction of large cross-sectional tunnels with shallow cover in weak strata, cutting tool replacement under limited drainage and reduced pressure conditions, the detection and treatment of boulders, the construction of underwater tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity, and the treatment of serious sedimentation in a foundation channel of immersed tunnels. Some suggestions are made regarding the three potential great strait-crossing tunnels—the Qiongzhou Strait-Crossing Tunnel, Bohai Strait-Crossing Tunnel, and Taiwan Strait-Crossing Tunnel—and issues related to these great strait-crossing tunnels that need further study are proposed.

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A Scheme for a Sustainable Urban Water Environmental System During the Urbanization Process in China
Huibin Yu, Yonghui Song, Xin Chang, Hongjie Gao, Jianfeng Peng
Engineering    2018, 4 (2): 190-193.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.03.009
Abstract   PDF (1063KB)

Urbanization is a potential factor in economic development, which is a main route to social development. As the scale of urbanization expands, the quality of the urban water environment may deteriorate, which can have a negative impact on sustainable urbanization. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the functions of the urban water environment is necessary, including its security, resources, ecology, landscape, culture, and economy. Furthermore, a deep analysis is required of the theoretical basis of the urban water environment, which is associated with geographical location, landscape ecology, and a low-carbon economy. In this paper, we expound the main principles for constructing a system for the urban water environment (including sustainable development, ecological priority, and regional differences), and suggest the content of an urban water environmental system. Such a system contains a natural water environment, an economic water environment, and a social water environment. The natural water environment is the base, an effective economic water environment is the focus, and a healthy social water environment is the essence of such a system. The construction of an urban water environment should rely on a comprehensive security system, complete scientific theory, and advanced technology.

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Clean Energy Perspective
Lance A. Davis
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 782-.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.11.004
Abstract   PDF (180KB)
 
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Social Influence Analysis: Models, Methods, and Evaluation
Kan Li, Lin Zhang, Heyan Huang
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 40-46.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.02.004
Abstract   PDF (415KB)

Social influence analysis (SIA) is a vast research field that has attracted research interest in many areas. In this paper, we present a survey of representative and state-of-the-art work in models, methods, and evaluation aspects related to SIA. We divide SIA models into two types: microscopic and macroscopic models. Microscopic models consider human interactions and the structure of the influence process, whereas macroscopic models consider the same transmission probability and identical influential power for all users. We analyze social influence methods including influence maximization, influence minimization, flow of influence, and individual influence. In social influence evaluation, influence evaluation metrics are introduced and social influence evaluation models are then analyzed. The objectives of this paper are to provide a comprehensive analysis, aid in understanding social behaviors, provide a theoretical basis for influencing public opinion, and unveil future research directions and potential applications.

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A Geodesign Method of Human-Energy-Water Interactive Systems for Urban Infrastructure Design: 10KM2 Near-Zero District Project in Shanghai
Perry Pei-Ju Yang, Cheryl Shu-Fang Chi, Yihan Wu, Steven Jige Quan
Engineering    2018, 4 (2): 182-189.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.03.014
Abstract   PDF (1507KB)

The grand challenges of climate change demand a new paradigm of urban design that takes the performance of urban systems into account, such as energy and water efficiency. Traditional urban design methods focus on the form-making process and lack performance dimensions. Geodesign is an emerging approach that emphasizes the links between systems thinking, digital technology, and geographic context. This paper presents the research results of the first phase of a larger research collaboration and proposes an extended geodesign method for a district-scale urban design to integrate systems of renewable energy production, energy consumption, and storm water management, as well as a measurement of human experiences in cities. The method incorporates geographic information system (GIS), parametric modeling techniques, and multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) tools that enable collaborative design decision-making. The method is tested and refined in a test case with the objective of designing a near-zero-energy urban district. Our final method has three characteristics.①Integrated geodesign and parametric design: It uses a parametric design approach to generate focal-scale district prototypes by means of a custom procedural algorithm, and applies geodesign to evaluate the performances of design proposals. ② A focus on design flow: It elaborates how to define problems, what information is selected, and what criteria are used in making design decisions.③Multi-objective optimization: The test case produces indicators from performance modeling and derives principles through a multi-objective computational experiment to inform how the design can be improved. This paper concludes with issues and next steps in modeling urban design and infrastructure systems based on MDO tools.

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The Undersea Tunnel on Qingdao Metro Line 8
Weiguo He, Peng Liu
Engineering    2018, 4 (2): 167-169.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.03.012
Abstract   PDF (775KB)
 
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Engineering’s Academy Awards
Lance A. Davis
Engineering    2018, 4 (4): 435-435.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.06.002
Abstract   PDF (229KB)
 
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A Realization Method for Transforming a Topology Optimization Design into Additive Manufacturing Structures
Shutian Liu, Quhao Li, Junhuan Liu, Wenjiong Chen, Yongcun Zhang
Engineering    2018, 4 (2): 277-285.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.09.002
Abstract   PDF (2983KB)

Topology optimization is a powerful design approach that is used to determine the optimal topology in order to obtain the desired functional performance. It has been widely used to improve structural performance in engineering fields such as in the aerospace and automobile industries. However, some gaps still exist between topology optimization and engineering application, which significantly hinder the application of topology optimization. One of these gaps is how to interpret topology results, especially those obtained using the density framework, into parametric computer-aided design (CAD) models that are ready for subsequent shape optimization and manufacturing. In this paper, a new method for interpreting topology optimization results into stereolithography (STL) models and parametric CAD models is proposed. First, we extract the skeleton of the topology optimization result in order to ensure shape preservation and use a filtering method to ensure characteristics preservation. After this process, the distribution of the nodes in the boundary of the topology optimization result is denser, which will benefit the subsequent curve fitting. Using the curvature and the derivative of curvature of the uniform B-spline curve, an adaptive B-spline fitting method is proposed in order to obtain a parametric CAD model with the fewest control points meeting the requirement of the fitting error. A case study is presented to provide a detailed description of the proposed method, and two more examples are shown to demonstrate the validity and versatility of the proposed method.

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Research on Combined Construction Technology for Cross-Subway Tunnels in Underground Spaces
Xiangsheng Chen
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 103-111.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.08.001
Abstract   PDF (3241KB)

Given the increasingly notable segmentation of underground space by existing subway tunnels, it is difficult to effectively and adequately develop and utilize underground space in busy parts of a city. This study presents a combined construction technology that has been developed for use in underground spaces; it includes a deformation buffer layer, a special grouting technique, jump excavation by compartment, back-pressure portal frame technology, a reinforcement technique, and the technology of a steel portioning drum or plate. These technologies have been successfully used in practical engineering. The combined construction technology presented in this paper provides a new method of solving key technical problems in underground spaces in effectively used cross-subway tunnels. As this technology has achieved significant economic and social benefits, it has valuable future applications.

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Research on the Construction of a Novel Cyberspace Security Ecosystem
Xiao-Niu Yang, Wei Wang, Xiao-Feng Xu, Guo-Rong Pang, Chun-Lei Zhang
Engineering    2018, 4 (1): 47-52.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.01.003
Abstract   PDF (822KB)

Given the challenges facing the cyberspace of the nation, this paper presents the tripartite theory of cyberspace, based on the status quo of cyberspace. Corresponding strategies and a research architecture are proposed for common public networks (C space), secure classified networks (S space), and key infrastructure networks (K space), based on their individual characteristics. The features and security requirements of these networks are then discussed. Taking C space as an example, we introduce the SMCRC (which stands for “situation awareness, monitoring and management, cooperative defense, response and recovery, and countermeasures and traceback”) loop for constructing a cyberspace security ecosystem. Following a discussion on its characteristics and information exchange, our analysis focuses on the critical technologies of the SMCRC loop. To obtain more insight into national cyberspace security, special attention should be paid to global sensing and precise mapping, continuous detection and active management, cross-domain cooperation and systematic defense, autonomous response and rapid processing, and accurate traceback and countermeasure deterrence.

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A Comparative Assessment of Aerodynamic Models for Buffeting and Flutter of Long-Span Bridges
Igor Kavrakov, Guido Morgenthal
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 823-838.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.11.008
Abstract   PDF (4590KB)

Wind-induced vibrations commonly represent the leading criterion in the design of long-span bridges. The aerodynamic forces in bridge aerodynamics are mainly based on the quasi-steady and linear unsteady theory. This paper aims to investigate different formulations of self-excited and buffeting forces in the time domain by comparing the dynamic response of a multi-span cable-stayed bridge during the critical erection condition. The bridge is selected to represent a typical reference object with a bluff concrete box girder for large river crossings. The models are viewed from a perspective of model complexity, comparing the influence of the aerodynamic properties implied in the aerodynamic models, such as aerodynamic damping and stiffness, fluid memory in the buffeting and self-excited forces, aerodynamic nonlinearity, and aerodynamic coupling on the bridge response. The selected models are studied for a windspeed range that is typical for the construction stage for two levels of turbulence intensity. Furthermore, a simplified method for the computation of buffeting forces including the aerodynamic admittance is presented, in which rational approximation is avoided. The critical flutter velocities are also compared for the selected models under laminar flow.

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Fatigue Strength Evaluation of Resin-Injected Bolted Connections Using Statistical Analysis
José António Fonseca de Oliveira Correia, Bruno Alexandre Silva Pedrosa, Patrícia Cordeiro Raposo, Abílio Manuel Pinho De Jesus, Helena Maria dos Santos Gervásio, Grzegorz Stanisław Lesiuk, Carlos Alberto da Silva Rebelo, Rui Artur Bartólo Calçada, Luís Alberto Proença Simões da Silva
Engineering    2017, 3 (6): 795-805.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.12.001
Abstract   PDF (2919KB)

Different strategies can be used to perform reparations and reinforcements of ancient bolted and riveted metallic bridges. As the riveting process is not currently a common practice, it requires proper equipment and skilled workers. Another solution is the use of welding. However, the weldability of old steels is poor. Bolts are very attractive alternative solutions, and are most commonly used to repair old metallic bridges. Fitted bolts are expensive solutions; the alternative is the use of resin-injected bolts. The behavior of bolted joints with preloaded resin-injected bolts has been studied using quasi-static and creep tests; however, few studies on the slip and fatigue behavior of these joints can be found in the literature. This paper presents an overview of a few experimental programs that were carried out by several authors aiming at evaluating the fatigue behavior of single and double shear resin-injected bolted connections. A comparison between the experimental data of joints with preloaded standard bolts and preloaded resininjected bolts shows a fatigue strength reduction in the latter. Since Eurocode 3 (EC3) suggests the same fatigue strength curve for joints made of resin-injected bolts and standard bolts, this may raise some concerns. Furthermore, research on the feasibility of using both bonded and bolted connections is shown. This last study was performed with high-strength low-alloy structural steel plates and an acrylic structural adhesive for metal bonding. For both case studies, a statistical analysis is performed on fatigue experimental data using linearized boundaries and the Castillo and Fernández-Canteli model. Fatigue design curves are proposed and compared with the design suggestions of several European and North American standards.

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