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Volume 1 • Issue 2 • June 2015 • Pages 161 -274
News & Highlights
Views & Comments
    • Advanced Materials and Materials Genome
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News & Highlights
Future Technologies and Applications of III-Nitride Materials and Devices
Shuji Nakamura
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 161 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015059
Abstract   HTML   PDF (159KB)
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450 mm Silicon Wafers Are Imperative for Moore’s Law but maybe Postponed
Hailing Tu
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 162 -163 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015060
Abstract   HTML   PDF (198KB)
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Salinity Gradient Energy: Current State and New Trends
Olivier Schaetzle, Cees J. N. Buisman
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 164 -166 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015046
Abstract   HTML   PDF (1127KB)

In this article we give an overview of the state of the art of salinity gradient technologies. We first introduce the concept of salinity gradient energy, before describing the current state of development of the most advanced of these technologies. We conclude with the new trends in the young field of salinity gradient technologies.

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Views & Comments
Development and Practical Applications of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes
Hideaki Koizumi
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 167 -168 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015064
Abstract   HTML   PDF (558KB)
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The Materials Genome Initiative and Advanced Materials
Liquan Chen
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 169 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015056
Abstract   HTML   PDF (159KB)
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Progress in Understanding Color Maintenance in Solid-State Lighting Systems
Maryam Yazdan Mehr, Willem Dirk van Driel, G. Q. (Kouchi) Zhang
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 170 -178 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015035
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2444KB)

In this paper, progresses of color maintenance, also known as color shift, in solid-state lighting (SSL) systems are thoroughly reviewed. First, color shift is introduced and a few examples are given from different real-life industrial conditions. Different degradation mechanisms in different parts of the system are also explained. Different materials used as lenses/encapsulants in light-emitting diode (LED)-based products are introduced and their contributions to color shift are discussed. Efforts put into standardization, characterizing, and predicting lumen maintenance are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

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Metamaterials: Reshape and Rethink
Ruopeng Liu, Chunlin Ji, Zhiya Zhao, Tian Zhou
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 179 -184 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015036
Abstract   HTML   PDF (1318KB)

Metamaterials are composite materials whose material properties (acoustic, electrical, magnetic, or optical, etc.) are determined by their constitutive structural materials, especially the unit cells. The development of metamaterials continues to redefine the boundaries of materials science. In the field of electromagnetic research and beyond, these materials offer excellent design flexibility with their customized properties and their tunability under external stimuli. In this paper, we first provide a literature review of metamaterials with a focus on the technology and its evolution. We then discuss steps in the industrialization process and share our own experience.

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Bulk Glassy Alloys: Historical Development and Current Research
Akihisa Inoue
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 185 -191 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015038
Abstract   HTML   PDF (317KB)

This paper reviews the development of current research in bulk glassy alloys by focusing on the trigger point for the synthesis of the first bulk glassy alloys by the conventional mold casting method. This review covers the background, discovery, characteristics, and applications of bulk glassy alloys, as well as recent topics regarding them. Applications of bulk glassy alloys have been expanding, particularly for Fe-based bulk glassy alloys, due to their unique properties, high glass-forming ability, and low cost. In the near future, the engineering importance of bulk glassy alloys is expected to increase steadily, and continuous interest in these novel metallic materials for basic science research is anticipated.

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Recent Developments in Functional Crystals in China
Jiyang Wang, Haohai Yu, Yicheng Wu, Robert Boughton
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 192 -210 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015053
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Functional crystals are the basic materials for the development of modern science and technology and are playing key roles in the modern information era. In this paper, we review functional crystals in China, including research history, significant achievements, and important applications by highlighting the most recent progress in research. Challenges for the development of functional materials are discussed and possible directions for development are proposed by focusing on potential strengths of these materials.

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Research and Development of Heat-Resistant Materials for Advanced USC Power Plants with Steam Temperatures of 700 °C and Above
Fujio Abe
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 211 -224 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015031
Abstract   HTML   PDF (1966KB)

Materials-development projects for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) power plants with steam temperatures of 700 °C and above have been performed in order to achieve high efficiency and low CO2 emissions in Europe, the US, Japan, and recently in China and India as well. These projects involve the replacement of martensitic 9%−12% Cr steels with nickel (Ni)-base alloys for the highest temperature boiler and turbine components in order to provide sufficient creep strength at 700°C and above. To minimize the require­ment for expensive Ni-base alloys, martensitic 9%−12% Cr steels can be applied to the next highest temperature components of an A-USC power plant, up to a maximum of 650°C. This paper comprehensively describes the research and development of Ni-base alloys and martensitic 9%−12% Cr steels for thick section boiler and turbine components of A-USC power plants, mainly focusing on the long-term creep-rupture strength of base metal and welded joints, strength loss in welded joints, creep-fatigue properties, and microstructure evolution during exposure at elevated temperatures.

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Individualized Pixel Synthesis and Characterization of Combinatorial Materials Chips
Xiao-Dong Xiang, Gang Wang, Xiaokun Zhang, Yong Xiang, Hong Wang
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 225 -233 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015041
Abstract   HTML   PDF (2547KB)

Conventionally, an experimentally determined phase diagram requires studies of phase formation at a range of temperatures for each composition, which takes years of effort from multiple research groups. Combinatorial materials chip technology, featuring high-throughput synthesis and characterization, is able to determine the phase diagram of an entire composition spread of a binary or ternary system at a single temperature on one materials library, which, though significantly increasing efficiency, still requires many libraries processed at a series of temperatures in order to complete a phase diagram. In this paper, we propose a “one-chip method” to construct a complete phase diagram by individually synthesizing each pixel step by step with a progressive pulse of energy to heat at different temperatures while monitoring the phase evolution on the pixel in situ in real time. Repeating this process pixel by pixel throughout the whole chip allows the entire binary or ternary phase diagram to be mapped on one chip in a single experiment. The feasibility of this methodology is demonstrated in a study of a Ge-Sb-Te ternary alloy system, on which the amorphous-crystalline phase boundary is determined.

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High-Throughput Screening Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging
Erdem Sasmaz, Kathleen Mingle, Jochen Lauterbach
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 234 -242 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015040
Abstract   HTML   PDF (1065KB)

Efficient parallel screening of combinatorial libraries is one of the most challenging aspects of the high-throughput (HT) heterogeneous catalysis workflow. Today, a number of methods have been used in HT catalyst studies, including various optical, mass-spectrometry, and gas-chromatography techniques. Of these, rapid-scanning Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging is one of the fastest and most versatile screening techniques. Here, the new design of the 16-channel HT reactor is presented and test results for its accuracy and reproducibility are shown. The performance of the system was evaluated through the oxidation of CO over commercial Pd/Al2O3 and cobalt oxide nanoparticles synthesized with different reducer-reductant molar ratios, surfactant types, metal and surfactant concentrations, synthesis temperatures, and ramp rates.

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First-Principles Study of Lithium and Sodium Atoms Intercalation in Fluorinated Graphite
Fengya Rao, Zhiqiang Wang, Bo Xu, Liquan Chen, Chuying Ouyang
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 243 -246 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015039
Abstract   HTML   PDF (989KB)

The structure evolution of fluorinated graphite (CFx) upon the Li/Na intercalation has been studied by first-principles calculations. The Li/Na adsorption on single CF layer and intercalated into bulk CF have been calculated. The better cycling performance of Na intercalation into the CF cathode, comparing to that of Li intercalation, is attributed to the different strength and characteristics of the Li-F and Na-F interactions. The interactions between Li and F are stronger and more localized than those between Na and F. The strong and localized Coulomb attraction between Li and F atoms breaks the C−F bonds and pulls the F atoms away, and graphene sheets are formed upon Li intercalation.

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CPS Modeling of CNC Machine Tool Work Processes Using an Instruction-Domain Based Approach
Jihong Chen, Jianzhong Yang, Huicheng Zhou, Hua Xiang, Zhihong Zhu, Yesong Li, Chen-Han Lee, Guangda Xu
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 247 -260 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015054
Abstract   HTML   PDF (5345KB)

Building cyber-physical system (CPS) models of machine tools is a key technology for intelligent manufacturing. The massive electronic data from a computer numerical control (CNC) system during the work processes of a CNC machine tool is the main source of the big data on which a CPS model is established. In this work-process model, a method based on instruction domain is applied to analyze the electronic big data, and a quantitative description of the numerical control (NC) processes is built according to the G code of the processes. Utilizing the instruction domain, a work-process CPS model is established on the basis of the accurate, real-time mapping of the manufacturing tasks, resources, and status of the CNC machine tool. Using such models, case studies are conducted on intelligent-machining applications, such as the optimization of NC processing parameters and the health assurance of CNC machine tools.

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Design and 3D Printing of Scaffolds and Tissues
Jia An, Joanne Ee Mei Teoh, Ratima Suntornnond, Chee Kai Chua
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 261 -268 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015061
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A growing number of?three-dimensional (3D)-print-ing processes have been applied to tissue engineering. This paper presents a state-of-the-art study of 3D-printing technologies?for tissue-engineering applications, with particular focus on the development of a computer-aided scaffold design system; the direct 3D printing of functionally graded scaffolds; the modeling of selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) processes; the indirect additive manufacturing of scaffolds, with both micro and macro features; the development of a bioreactor; and 3D/4D bioprinting. Technological limitations will be discussed so as to highlight the possibility of future improvements for new 3D-printing methodologies for tissue engineering.

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Bioprinting-Based High-Throughput Fabrication of Three-Dimensional MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cellular Spheroids
Kai Ling, Guoyou Huang, Juncong Liu, Xiaohui Zhang, Yufei Ma, Tianjian Lu, Feng Xu
Engineering . 2015, 1 (2): 269 -274 .   DOI: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015062
Abstract   HTML   PDF (3266KB)

Cellular spheroids serving as three-dimensional (3D) in vitro tissue models have attracted increasing interest for pathological study and drug-screening applications. Various methods, including microwells in particular, have been developed for engineering cellular spheroids. However, these methods usually suffer from either destructive molding operations or cell loss and non-uniform cell distribution among the wells due to two-step molding and cell seeding. We have developed a facile method that utilizes cell-embedded hydrogel arrays as templates for concave well fabrication and in situ MCF-7 cellular spheroid formation on a chip. A custom-built bioprinting system was applied for the fabrication of sacrificial gelatin arrays and sequentially concave wells in a high-throughput, flexible, and controlled manner. The ability to achieve in situ cell seeding for cellular spheroid construction was demonstrated with the advantage of uniform cell seeding and the potential for programmed fabrication of tissue models on chips. The developed method holds great potential for applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug screening.

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