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Volume 2 • Issue 3 • September 2016 • Pages 263 -414
News & Highlights
Views & Comments
    • Hydro Projects
    • Rail Transit
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News & Highlights
The World’s Longest Tunnel
Lance A. Davis
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 263 -264 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.013
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The South-to-North Water Diversion Project
Office of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project Construction Committee, State Council, PRC
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 265 -267 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.022
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Genetically Engineered Crops
Lance A. Davis
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 268 -269 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.007
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Desert “Soilization”: An Eco-Mechanical Solution to Desertification
Zhijian Yi, Chaohua Zhao
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 270 -273 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.002
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The Highest Dam in the World under Construction: The Shuangjiangkou Core-Wall Rockfill Dam
Shanping Li, Bin Duan
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 274 -275 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.018
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Views & Comments
Compromise through Competition: A More Widely Applicable Approach?
Robin Batterham
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 286 -287 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.009
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Key Challenges and Countermeasures with Railway Accessibility along the Silk Road
Huawu He
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 288 -291 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.017
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Coming Back from a Trip on High-Speed Trains in the 2040s
Ignacio Barron
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 292 -293 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.020
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An Enhanced Physically Based Scour Model for Considering Jet Air Entrainment
Rafael Duarte,António Pinheiro,Anton J. Schleiss
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 294 -301 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.003
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Based on systematic experiments on the influence of air entrainment on rock block stability in plunge pools impacted by high-velocity jets, this study presents adaptations of a physically based scour model. The modifications regarding jet aeration are implemented in the Comprehensive Scour Model (CSM), allowing it to reproduce the physical-mechanical processes involved in scour formation concerning the three phases; namely, water, rock, and air. The enhanced method considers the reduction of momentum of an aerated jet as well as the decrease of energy dissipation in the jet diffusive shear layer, both resulting from the entrainment of air bubbles. Block ejection from the rock mass depends on a combination of the aerated time-averaged pressure coefficient and the modified maximum dynamic impulsion coefficient, which was found to be a constant value of 0.2 for high-velocity jets in deep pools. The modified model is applied to the case of the observed scour hole at the Kariba Dam, with good agreement.

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A Technical Review of Hydro-Project Development in China
Jinsheng Jia
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 302 -312 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.008
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This paper summarizes the development of hydro-projects in China, blended with an international perspective. It expounds major technical progress toward ensuring the safe construction of high dams and river harnessing, and covers the theorization of uneven non-equilibrium sediment transport, inter-basin water diversion, giant hydro-generator units, pumped storage power stations, underground caverns, ecological protection, and so on.

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The Role of Hydropower in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Review
Luis Berga
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 313 -318 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.004
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Hydropower is a clean, renewable, and environmentally friendly source of energy. It produces 3930?(TW•h)•a–1, and yields 16% of the world’s generated electricity and about 78% of renewable electricity generation (in 2015). Hydropower and climate change show a double relationship. On the one hand, as an important renewable energy resource, hydropower contributes significantly to the avoidance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to the mitigation of global warming. On the other hand, climate change is likely to alter river discharge, impacting water availability and hydropower generation. Hydropower contributes significantly to the reduction of GHG emissions and to energy supply security. Compared with conventional coal power plants, hydropower prevents the emission of about 3?GT CO2 per year, which represents about 9% of global annual CO2 emissions. Hydropower projects may also have an enabling role beyond the electricity sector, as a financing instrument for multipurpose reservoirs and as an adaptive measure regarding the impacts of climate change on water resources, because regulated basins with large reservoir capacities are more resilient to water resource changes, less vulnerable to climate change, and act as a storage buffer against climate change. At the global level, the overall impact of climate change on existing hydropower generation may be expected to be small, or even slightly positive. However, there is the possibility of substantial variations across regions and even within countries. In conclusion, the general verdict on hydropower is that it is a cheap and mature technology that contributes significantly to climate change mitigation, and could play an important role in the climate change adaptation of water resource availability. However, careful attention is necessary to mitigate the substantial environmental and social costs. Roughly more than a terawatt of capacity could be added in upcoming decades.

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Computational Aspects of Dam Risk Analysis: Findings and Challenges
Ignacio Escuder-Bueno,Guido Mazzà,Adrián Morales-Torres,Jesica T. Castillo-Rodríguez
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 319 -324 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.005
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In recent years, risk analysis techniques have proved to be a useful tool to inform dam safety management. This paper summarizes the outcomes of three themes related to dam risk analysis discussed in the Benchmark Workshops organized by the International Commission on Large Dams Technical Committee on “Computational Aspects of Analysis and Design of Dams.” In the 2011 Benchmark Workshop, estimation of the probability of failure of a gravity dam for the sliding failure mode was discussed. Next, in 2013, the discussion focused on the computational challenges of the estimation of consequences in dam risk analysis. Finally, in 2015, the probability of sliding and overtopping in an embankment was analyzed. These Benchmark Workshops have allowed a complete review of numerical aspects for dam risk analysis, showing that risk analysis methods are a very useful tool to analyze the risk of dam systems, including downstream consequence assessments and the uncertainty of structural models.

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Safety Aspects of Sustainable Storage Dams and Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams
Martin Wieland
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 325 -331 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.011
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The basic element in any sustainable dam project is safety, which includes the following safety elements: ① structural safety, ② dam safety monitoring, ③ operational safety and maintenance, and ④ emergency planning. Long-term safety primarily includes the analysis of all hazards affecting the project; that is, hazards from the natural environment, hazards from the man-made environment, and project-specific and site-specific hazards. The special features of the seismic safety of dams are discussed. Large dams were the first structures to be systematically designed against earthquakes, starting in the 1930s. However, the seismic safety of older dams is unknown, as most were designed using seismic design criteria and methods of dynamic analysis that are considered obsolete today. Therefore, we need to reevaluate the seismic safety of existing dams based on current state-of-the-art practices and rehabilitate deficient dams. For large dams, a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is usually recommended. Today, large dams and the safety-relevant elements used for controlling the reservoir after a strong earthquake must be able to withstand the ground motions of a safety evaluation earthquake. The ground motion parameters can be determined either by a probabilistic or a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. During strong earthquakes, inelastic deformations may occur in a dam; therefore, the seismic analysis has to be carried out in the time domain. Furthermore, earthquakes create multiple seismic hazards for dams such as ground shaking, fault movements, mass movements, and others. The ground motions needed by the dam engineer are not real earthquake ground motions but models of the ground motion, which allow the safe design of dams. It must also be kept in mind that dam safety evaluations must be carried out several times during the long life of large storage dams. These features are discussed in this paper.

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Technical Progress on Researches for the Safety of High Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams
Hongqi Ma,Fudong Chi
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 332 -339 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.010
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The concrete-faced rockfill dam (CFRD) is an important dam type in the selection of high dams to be constructed in Western China, owing to its direct utilization of local materials, good adaptability, and distinct economic advantages. Over the past decades, China has gained successful experience in the construction of 200?m CFRDs, providing the necessary technical accumulation for the development of 250–300?m ultra-high CFRDs. This paper summarizes these successful experiences and analyzes the problems of a number of major 200?m CFRDs around the world. In addition, it discusses the key technologies and latest research progress regarding safety in the construction of 250–300?m ultra-high CFRDs, and suggests focuses and general ideas for future research.

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Key Technologies of the Hydraulic Structures of the Three Gorges Project
Xinqiang Niu
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 340 -349 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.006
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To date, the Three Gorges Project is the largest hydro junction in the world. It is the key project for the integrated water resource management and development of the Changjiang River. The technology of the project, with its huge scale and comprehensive benefits, is extremely complicated, and the design difficulty is greater than that of any other hydro project in the world. A series of new design theories and methods have been proposed and applied in the design and research process. Many key technological problems regarding hydraulic structures have been overcome, such as a gravity dam with multi-layer large discharge orifices, a hydropower station of giant generating units, and a giant continual multi-step ship lock with a high water head.

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Key Technologies in the Design and Construction of 300 m Ultra-High Arch Dams
Renkun Wang
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 350 -359 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.012
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Starting with the Ertan arch dam (240 m high, 3300 MW) in 2000, China successfully built a total of seven ultra-high arch dams over 200 m tall by the end of 2014. Among these, the Jinping I (305 m), Xiaowan (294.5m), and Xiluodu (285.5 m) arch dams have reached the 300 m height level (i.e., near or over 300 m), making them the tallest arch dams in the world. The design and construction of these 300 m ultra-high arch dams posed significant challenges, due to high water pressures, high seismic design criteria, and complex geological conditions. The engineering team successfully tackled these challenges and made critical breakthroughs, especially in the area of safety control. In this paper, the author summarizes various key technological aspects involved in the design and construction of 300?m ultra-high arch dams, including the strength and stability of foundation rock, excavation of the dam base and surface treatment, dam shape optimization, safety design guidelines, seismic analysis and design, treatment of a complex foundation, concrete temperature control, and crack prevention. The experience gained from these projects should be valuable for future practitioners.

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New Monitoring Technologies for Overhead Contact Line at 400 km·h−1
Chul Jin Cho, Young Park
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 360 -365 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.016
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Various technologies have recently been developed for high-speed railways, in order to boost commercial speeds from 300 km·h−1to 400 km·h−1. Among these technologies, this paper introduces the 400 km·h−1 class current collection performance evaluation methods that have been developed and demonstrated by Korea. Specifically, this paper reports details of the video-based monitoring techniques that have been adopted to inspect the stability of overhead contact line (OCL) components at 400 km·h−1 without direct contact with any components of the power supply system. Unlike conventional OCL monitoring systems, which detect contact wire positions using either laser sensors or line cameras, the developed system measures parameters in the active state by video data. According to experimental results that were obtained at a field-test site established at a commercial line, it is claimed that the proposed measurement system is capable of effectively measuring OCL parameters.

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High-Speed Railway Train Timetable Conflict Prediction Based on Fuzzy Temporal Knowledge Reasoning
He Zhuang,Liping Feng,Chao Wen,Qiyuan Peng,Qizhi Tang
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 366 -373 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.019
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Trains are prone to delays and deviations from train operation plans during their operation because of internal or external disturbances. Delays may develop into operational conflicts between adjacent trains as a result of delay propagation, which may disturb the arrangement of the train operation plan and threaten the operational safety of trains. Therefore, reliable conflict prediction results can be valuable references for dispatchers in making more efficient train operation adjustments when conflicts occur. In contrast to the traditional approach to conflict prediction that involves introducing random disturbances, this study addresses the issue of the fuzzification of time intervals in a train timetable based on historical statistics and the modeling of a high-speed railway train timetable based on the concept of a timed Petri net. To measure conflict prediction results more comprehensively, we divided conflicts into potential conflicts and certain conflicts and defined the judgment conditions for both. Two evaluation indexes, one for the deviation of a single train and one for the possibility of conflicts between adjacent train operations, were developed using a formalized computation method. Based on the temporal fuzzy reasoning method, with some adjustment, a new conflict prediction method is proposed, and the results of a simulation example for two scenarios are presented. The results prove that conflict prediction after fuzzy processing of the time intervals of a train timetable is more reliable and practical and can provide helpful information for use in train operation adjustment, train timetable improvement, and other purposes.

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Influence and Control Strategy for Local Settlement for High-Speed Railway Infrastructure
Gaoliang Kang
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 374 -379 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.014
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This paper discusses the main impact factors of the local settlement and differential settlement of high-speed railway lines. The analysis results show that groundwater exploitation is the direct cause of differential settlement. Based on the study of ballastless track additional load and of vehicle, track, and bridge dynamic responses under different differential settlements, a control standard of differential settlement during operation is proposed preliminarily.

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How to Deal with Revolutions in Train Control Systems
Hideo Nakamura
Engineering . 2016, 2 (3): 380 -386 .   DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.03.015
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Train control systems ensure the safety of railways. This paper begins with a summary of the typical train control systems in Japan and Europe. Based on this summary, the author then raises the following question regarding current train control systems: What approach should be adopted in order to enhance the functionality, safety, and reliability of train control systems and assist in commercial operations on railways? Next, the author provides a desirable architecture that is likely to assist with the development of new train control systems based on current information and communication technologies. A new unified train control system (UTCS) is proposed that is effective in enhancing the robustness and competitiveness of a train control system. The ultimate architecture of the UTCS will be only composed of essential elements such as point machines and level crossing control devices in the field. Finally, a processing method of the UTCS is discussed.

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